This is the official listing of the Band Division All-State Audition Material for 2019–2020. All amendments, corrections and errata will become official only when it is published here.

The TMEA All-State Performance Guides are provided as a tool to help you. Be sure to make note of any changes that may appear here during the upcoming months. Errata will not be posted in the Southwestern Musician magazine. Should you discover any errata in the music that may have been missed, please notify the State Band Division Chair, John Carroll.


Flute and Piccolo

Book - Title Editor Publisher Edition
Flute Etudes Book Mary Karen Clardy European American Music Corp. or Schott EA 764 0-913574-96-1

Selection 1

Page(s): 8-9
Key: A Minor
Etude Title: Volubile
Tempo: Quarter Note = 108-120
Play from Beginning to downbeat of m. 83.
Errata:
For piccolo:
Play the low C in m. 40 one octave higher. updated July 22.
In both m. 45 and m. 53, play the first four notes one octave higher. updated July 22.
In m. 41 and m. 49, the seventh note is an F#. updated July 29.

For piccolo: in m. 83, the high C is optional (for piccolo). One octave lower is acceptable.

Performance Guide:
This etude titled “Volubile” and marked Allegro rapido should be fast and fluid! Volubile literally means fluent, as in a language easily spoken and understood. The idea of language also applies to the two voices found throughout the etude. Practice the upper voice and accompanimental voice separately whenever possible (the accompanimental voice is often lower and takes the form three-note “turnarounds” or other patterns).

For embouchure flexibility and excellent intonation, practice the large intervals filled in chromatically (example: m. 1 – Practice the C above the staff with a chromatic run down to the low A and then the A returning chromatically back to the C). Use this exercise to find the sweet spots for each pitch and learn about the path of air in between.

To develop a steady sense of pulse and rhythmic integrity throughout, practice this etude with the metronome click first representing the sixteenth note, then the eighth note, next the quarter note and finally the half note. Though the performance tempo is based on the quarter note, practicing with a variety of metronome strategies will strengthen your ability to play consistently even sixteenth notes within the context of longer phrases.

The staccato quartet note D in m. 48 should be singing and lifted (rather than short or dry). Take a singing approach to the entire etude with vibrato that stays “behind the scenes” until it comes to the forefront for longer notes. Take breaths between phrases (after long notes) and between pattern changes as needed.

Selection 2

Page(s): 46-47
Key: Gb Major
Etude Title: Op. 21 / 13
Tempo: Quarter note 56-64
Play from Beginning to downbeat of m. 33.
Errata:
After m. 12, take the second ending in m. 14.

Piccolo: Play the low D-flat in m. 14 one octave higher.
Piccolo: Play the low D-flat in m. 2 one octave higher. Updated July 31.

Performance Guide:
Beginning with an expressive "tranquillo" mini cadenza, this lyrical etude provides opportunities to play with singing vibrato, elegant shapes and dynamics that range from tender pianos and pianissimos to passionate mezzo fortes. Rather than feeling stifled or limited by the written soft dynamics, use colors and moods that help you create lovely sounds for every register and dynamic. Andante implies a moderately slow walking tempo, so play with a nice flow that doesn't rush.

Take great care with your rhythm in this etude. Count, say and sing the rhythms with a metronome to ensure that you are subdividing all long notes correctly and that all rhythms are in proportion. When playing ad lib., rallentando, Lento or piu mosso, practicing singing and conducting your part so that the meter can still be felt clearly.

For the turn in m. 3 (B-flat, C-flat, B-flat, A-natural, B-flat), play either a quintuplet with a slightly tenuto first note or an eighth note with four thirty-second notes. The grace notes occur “before the beat,” but should fit easily into the existing rhythms, rather than feeling rushed or compressed. To facilitate excellent intonation, play and sing intervals from the etude while listening to a G-flat drone. For efficient and effective breathing, practice easy and filling breaths that fit within the existing rhythms (examples: breathing in place of the tied sixteenth in m. 4 or in place of the dot on the dotted eighth note in m. 7).

Selection 3

Page(s): 44
Key: F# Major
Etude Title: Op. 107 / 29
Tempo: Dotted eighth note 112-132
Play from Beginning to end.
Errata:
m. 11 - fourth note is E-natural;
m. 33 - fourth note is a D-natural;

Piccolo: m. 40 - play last note one octave lower, m. 41 - play first note one octave lower AND last note one octave higher, m. 42 - play all one octave higher
The alterations for piccolo will result in three identical C# octave leaps (with articulations as written).

Performance Guide:
Velocissimo e frizzante means as quickly as possible and sparkling! Practice this etude with your metronome click representing the sixteenth note first to achieve evenness. Next, practice with a dotted eighth note beat. With both the sixteenth note beat and dotted eighth note beat practice, start slowly and make sure all notes are correct and all accents are in place before working patiently toward your performance tempo. The accents emphasize the consistent big beat placement in contrast to the creative intervals and groupings.

To facilitate clean and clear tonguing on both accented and staccato notes, practice with breath kicks (core support with no tonguing) and listen for the sweet spots. When you return to tonguing, play with the same support and sound. Avoid heavy or stuck tonguing by practicing bouncy breath kicks (without tonguing) on a regular basis.

Take care in m. 24 and m. 26 to only double the notes with two dots (representing two thirty-second notes in place of the written sixteenth note). In addition to rests and marked breaths, write in small catch breaths between pattern changes to facilitate steady rhythm and flow.

Practice lots of exercises and music in F# Major so you can think and read easily in six sharps. It is best not to think or write F for E-sharp or B-flat for A-sharp, etc. Both your ability to read the music and execute the technical challenges will be much improved when you call the notes by their real names.


Soprano Clarinets

Book - Title Editor Publisher Edition
Artistic Studies, Book 1 - From the French School David Hite Southern Music Company B362

Selection 1

Page(s): 71
Key:
Etude Title: 32 Etudes, 26
Tempo: Quarter Note = 100-120
Play from Beginning to end.
Errata:
M. 1-12 No repeat
Extend the slur in m. 25 to the downbeat Ab sixteenth note in m. 26. Begin the next slur on the 2nd Ab sixteenth note in m. 26
m. 8--Remove the slur from the last two sixteenth notes of beat two
m. 9--Extend the slur to the F-natural at beginning of beat three
m. 10--Extend the slur to the E-flat at the beginning of beat three.
m. 11--Third sixteenth of beat 4 is B-flat
m. 19--Slur extends over beats 1 and 2, similar to beat 3 and 4 in the same measure
m. 26--The downbeat is an A-flat.

Performance Guide:
Strive for evenness, shape, and direction of the musical line during the mixed articulations, especially in measure one, two, and four. Observe the left-hand C fingering indicated in measure 2 and other approaches from E-flat to C, such as mm 3, 10, 15, 20, and 34. Use chromatic F-sharp in measures 4, 28, 36 and subsequent chromatic measures involving the half-step from F to F-sharp. Chromatic B natural should be observed in measure 5 and subsequent measures involving the half-step from B to B-flat. In measures 7, 10, 13, and 29, use right-hand B natural for evenness and economy of motion. The grace note in measure 17 should be played before the beat. The accents should be observed to give musical drive and direction of the melodic line.

Selection 2

Page(s): 64
Key: G Minor
Etude Title: 32 Etudes, 19
Tempo: Eighth Note = 92-104
Play from Beginning to end.
Errata:
At the piu mosso, make the eighth note = 108-116.

Performance Guide:
This etude provides a way to display beautiful sound, expressive playing and musicality while demonstrating rhythmic precision. Reference the glossary at the back of the book for the many expressive markings and descriptions that should be observed for correct style and musical approach.

Keep energy in the sound and think long phrases while using the most beautiful sound possible. The section beginning in m. 15 goes into B-flat Major and becomes more complex rhythmically. At m. 20 the “one and one” fingering for the high B-flat – index finger of both hands – will help to make this passage smooth.
After the expressive chromatic cadenza in m. 30, the G minor theme returns in m. 33 but this time is slower, and the expressive marking is different. There is another chromatic passage in m. 40-41, but this needs to be more rhythmically precise as opposed to the cadenza passage in m. 30. Use resonance fingerings to find your best sound on the B-flat in m. 43.

Be convincing in your phrase shapes and add nuances where the expressive markings suggest.



Selection 3

Page(s): 52
Key:
Etude Title: 32 Etudes, 6
Tempo: Quarter Note = 92-112
Play from Beginning to end (no repeats).
Errata:
A slur is missing over the C-sharp to D in m.33 (in some older printings of the book).
m. 33 should look exactly like m. 2.
Do not repeat m. 19-31.
Move the breath mark at the end of measure 44 to the end of measure 43, so that it matches measures 11 and 12.

Performance Guide:
This etude develops fluidity while utilizing many different styles of articulation. Keeping fast air and direction in the phrasing is very important in this etude.

Don’t forget to carry the D-sharp through the measure in m. 12 and m. 44. In m. 13 playing third line B with the right-hand instead of the left will help to keep the arpeggio even. Follow the marked crescendos and diminuendos fully to help get a sense of phrasing.

The section from m. 19-31 will not need to be repeated, but it is arguably the most important part of this etude. Exaggerate the phrasing marked in m. 20-21 and m. 22-23, and in m. 24 start softly and do a long crescendo, arriving at a full forte at m.28. The arrival point is the downbeat of m. 30, and then diminuendo for the rest of the phrase. Strive to play this section musically as well as technically.
Using the chromatic F-sharp in m. 17, 49, and 52 will help fluidity in the passages.

There are subtle changes in articulation throughout this etude, so be conscious of when they happen and bring those out to help convey the playful style.



Low Clarinets

Book - Title Editor Publisher Edition
Artistic Studies, Book 1 - From the French School David Hite Southern Music Company B362

Selection 1

Page(s): 65
Key: G Minor
Etude Title: 32 Etudes, 20
Tempo: Dotted quarter note 60-70
Play from Beginning to end.
Errata:
no repeats

Performance Guide:
This etude facilitates good finger technique and rapid articulation. The etude is in G minor, which utilizes the alternate C key, left pinky. The musical shaping in this etude follows the trajectory of the notes, which Hite added. There are also a lot of repeated ideas in this etude; shape the repeating motives so that these ideas do not get too monotonous. In mm. 17-20, the trill B should be played with a side key trill fingering, either the top side key or the top two side keys. If ability permits, do more than a trill. But if the gesture is too frantic, one will suffice. Focus on making this gesture a musical one and not a technical one. The articulation pattern throughout this etude changes very rarely so make the hemiola obvious when it occurs. In m. 65, the etude states poco piu mosso, make sure that the adjudicators hear a difference in tempo.n Keep the embouchure stable and the air stream constant. If the mouth and throat move on each tongued note, then the notes will not speak clearly and a rapid tempo will not be possible.

Selection 2

Page(s): 53
Key:
Etude Title: 32 Etudes, 7
Tempo: Dotted quarter note 50-60
Play from Beginning to end.
Errata:
In m. 37-39 gently articulate the groupings of two that are indicated under the big slurs.
In M. 39, the 10th note of the measure should be a G-natural, NOT a G-sharp. Updated August 3.

Performance Guide:
This etude is in E minor. The time signature should be felt in two big beats for the final product, but can be started feeling the 8th note pulse to really line up all of the syncopated entrances throughout the etude. There are some unconventional fingering techniques that can be utilized throughout the etude (i.e. flipping between E-sharp to F-sharp in m. 4 and m. 15.) The new thematic material in m. 33 should move forward, relative to the tempo chosen at the beginning of the etude. The style throughout this etude should have a very lyrical and connected musical line. Unless indicated by a staccato, every note should be legato. Measure 16 is taken out of time and typically played as a brief "cadenza". In m. 37-39 gently articulate the groupings of two that are indicated under the big slurs. All of the grace notes in this etude precede the beat. This etude should be performed in a very smooth, flowing and lyrical style.

Selection 3

Page(s): 63
Key: Bb Major
Etude Title: 32 Etudes, 18
Tempo: Dotted quarter note 72-88
Play from Beginning to end.
Errata:
In mm. 46-49, play lower articulations.
Tempo is dotted quarter note=72-88.
For Contra clarinets, all of m. 47 should be played down an octave.
Also for contra clarinets, m. 51 and the B-flat in measure 52 should be played down an octave.

Performance Guide:
This etude is in B-flat major in goes in G minor. Make sure they know the scale patterns for these scales along with the arpeggio patterns for these scales. The majority of the etude is scalar patterns so this is mostly about the velocity of the fingers and musical shaping and phrasing throughout. In mm. 5-6 and mm. 13-14, make sure the 32nd notes are perfectly in time and observe the staccatos on the eighth notes. Please observe the meno mosso marking in m. 17. Make sure the a tempo is similar to the tempo from the beginning of the etude. Make sure to not take too much time during the 16th note rests in measure 30 and 31. In mm. 46–49, follow the articulation markings inside the giant slur markings. The etude should be worked out very slowly in 6 (with the 8th-note to the beat) until all passages are clean, smooth and even. Throughout the etude, be careful not to rush off the 1st of 6-note groups and the beginnings of slurred groups.


Oboe and English Horn

Book - Title Editor Publisher Edition
48 Famous Studies for Oboe or Saxophone W. Ferling, Revised by Andraud Southern Music Company B103

Selection 1

Page(s): 15
Key:
Etude Title: No. 30
Tempo: Quarter note 96-116
Play from Beginning to end.
Errata:
M. 20, the F (third 16th of the third beat) should be marked F#. As written, it would be F-natural because of the natural sign earlier in the measure on the second beat.

Performance Guide:
When preparing your etudes, be sure to first take note of your key and time signatures, note all the bits of scales and arpeggios you can recognize, plan and mark any alternate fingerings, and take note of any particular challenges (in this case, difficult arpeggios, range jumps, and articulation).

For this E major etude, you should be comfortable with the E major scale and the full E major arpeggio (m. 8). I would recommend a full fingering on the high E; if you do use a short fingering, be sure it’s reasonably in tune on your instrument, especially on English horn. The B major arpeggio, when taken down to low B (m.16), is particularly tricky on oboe. There are only a handful of options, and frankly, none are good:
1. The first option is to use the “banana” alternate C key next to the low D key instead of the normal pinky C key on low B (you still must cover the hole in the D key.) This frees up your right pinky to hit the regular D-sharp on the previous note (the D-sharp key will force up the banana key).

2. The second option involves the Left D-sharp key, and can be done in two ways:
i. Poke your left pinky directly between the low B and left D-sharp keys. Pull for B and push for D-sharp (remember to coordinate your low C pinky). This is rather like sitting in the middle of a see-saw and forcing it.
ii. Finger a left D-sharp, and then drop your wrist until your knuckle is touching the tip of the low B key. Drop your wrist further to play low B with the knuckle; bring it back to almost-normal for D-sharp. This is rather like laying across a see-saw, and has the benefit of also being usable for low Bb.

This etude includes a great deal of fast tonguing. Focus on keeping the airstream fast and continuous to help your tonguing, and avoid any pecky sounds (we should hear mostly tone, not tongue). Be sure that the tonguing does not interfere with your rhythmic accuracy. Do not play faster than you can tongue cleanly and consistently. Accents should be leans, not harsh attacks.

Be especially careful with the jumps to high C in m. 3. We don’t want the C to jump out too much, but we do want a full and in-tune sound.

Remember to play musically. Always be on the lookout for opportunities to shape phrases (e.g. shape through the lower notes in m. 19-20).

Selection 2

Page(s): 5
Key:
Etude Title: No. 9
Tempo: Eighth note 80-92
Play from Beginning to end.
Errata:
In measure 7, if you have two slur options, take the larger slur, slurring from the first note (G) through the eighth note (Bb).

Performance Guide:
This etude is in F major—be able to play your F scales and arpeggios. Mark your left F’s where needed, and identify scales and arpeggios as you can. Note that the eighth note gets the beat in this piece.

Remember that several staccatos in a row under a slur (mm. 5-6) indicate that you should tongue legato. The turn in m. 12 has a B-natural, as per the accidental underneath the turn sign—a good way to play this turn would be: a half-beat C, a half-beat triplet D-C-B, and then another half-beat C.

Be very careful of the rhythm and pulse in the opening. Make sure to have your pulse set before starting, and count accurately through those longer notes. Watch for accuracy transitioning from the sixteenths to the triplets.

There are several places in this piece that feature large, slurred jumps in difficult ranges (mm. 24-25, mm. 37-38). Be careful to keep your posture relaxed (avoid leaning forward or dropping your head) and your embouchure open. It can help to imagine pushing the air out and down for the low notes, rather than up. Don’t play softer than you can manage the response reliably.

Always play musically. Let the larger 3/4 feel guide you as you plan how you will shape your phrases, and note the occasional hemiolas (e.g. m. 18). Be deliberate with shaping over such long, slow phrases, and carefully control your crescendos and decrescendos. Remember that vibrato speed and intensity can also be used to help shape phrases. Look for opportunities to emphasize dynamic contrast (m. 9, m. 17, m. 33). Note that while breath marks are usually trying to tell you something about the music, they do not obligate you to actually breathe—it’s up to your musical discretion how much space you feel is appropriate, and that may or may not be enough for a full breath.

Selection 3

Page(s): 18
Key: F Minor
Etude Title: No. 36
Tempo: Dotted quarter note 66-80
Play from Beginning to end.
Errata:

Performance Guide:
This etude is in f minor. You should be comfortable with your f minor scales (especially the harmonic form, as in m. 17) and full range arpeggio (m. 18). Plan and mark your alternate F and Eb fingerings. This etude is full of arpeggios; you will likely find it helpful to identify those you can. You should begin practice at the eighth note pulse, and then move to the dotted quarter pulse as you become more comfortable with the piece.

The low D-flat to low C transition is especially problematic on oboe (mm. 19, 20, 33). Here are two options:
1. Hit the D-flat key with the tip of your pinky, and then straighten your pinky so that you’re hitting the C key with the first knuckle, and the tip is off the D-flat key. It is okay if you hit both keys on D-flat. Be careful not to lose control of your D finger, which must continue to cover its hole.
2. Use the alternate C key (banana key) next to the low D key on your D-flat. You need then only move the D-flat pinky to go between D-flat and C. For m. 33, the banana C key can simply stay down on low B, taking the place of the normal C key; no need to move the right pinky again until the next D-flat.


Be careful to avoid pecky tonguing, and don’t let the articulations and grace notes alter your rhythmic accuracy. Keep your focus on the continuous air support more than the tongue. Watch out for times the articulation may be slightly different than expected (m. 27, mm. 19-20). Accents should be leans, not harsh attacks.

Always work to play musically. Shape phrases, and be on the lookout for dynamic opportunities. Pay attention to how you approach the fermata rest in measure 26. Remember that the last few sixteenth notes of a beat usually have a forward musical direction.


Bassoon

Book - Title Editor Publisher Edition
Practical Method for the Bassoon - 50 Advanced Studies Weissenborn / Ambrosio Carl Fischer O2150 0-8258-0350-0

Selection 1

Page(s): 91
Key: G Minor
Etude Title: Fifty Advanced Studies, No. 17
Tempo: Quarter note 138-168
Play from Beginning to end.
Errata:

Performance Guide:
Dynamic and style changes are critical to a successful musical performance of this etude. The melodic, rhythmic, and articulation styles are playful and light. Work towards long musical lines rather than small gestures. There are mostly terraced dynamics, only two crescendos, and no decrescendos. Work on the soft dynamic and do not play everything loud. Notice that the accents are all in the piano dynamic, so use a little extra air and keep the tongue light on these special notes. Don’t forget that accidentals carry throughout the measure.

The alternate F-sharp fingering using the RH pinky (front F-sharp) in mm. 38 and 40 will facilitate movement from F-sharp to B-flat.

Give the tenor clef section in mm. 45-47 special practice time, as it is very tricky. There are several choices of fingerings for the notes in this section (especially high A and F-sharp), ask your teacher and/or research the many online resources (IDRS, https://www.idrs.org/resources/fingerings/). Breathing is a challenge from mm. 42-65. Get a big breath in m. 42. If needed, I suggest breathing after the low D in m. 49, and a small ritard at the end of m. 60, followed by a breath. A small ritard in the last beat of m.70 is appropriate.

Selection 2

Page(s): 95
Key: F Major
Etude Title: Fifty Advanced Studies, No. 21
Tempo: Quarter Note = 58-76
Play from M. 17 to end.
Errata:

Performance Guide:
There is a lot of room for interpretation and rubato in this etude which is a lyric study in playing various ornaments. This is a chance to sing through your bassoon. The first style indication is cantabile. You will start in m. 17, marked con anime, with the return marked con espressione, indicating the music should be sung with expression. 

Rhythm: Make sure to subdivide the first dotted quarter into three eighth notes, and subdivide the dotted eighth/sixteenth rhythms, taking care not to play them as triplet figures. Ornaments: Your Weissenborn has a good discussion on how to perform ornaments, starting on pg. 59. Shape the trills either with speed and/or dynamics for the most desired music effect. Trill LH (left hand) 3 (ring finger) in m. 36  for the Bb-C trill. Terry Ewell discusses this etude and how to execute the turns on YouTube (@1:45-2:10, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v0aTj1B7agA&list=PL_xCoWcKyxRSPx1j1lWZUTN2ZPtBwgyJ8&index=23)

Don’t pinch for the high C in m. 34 and sing it (for fingerings, refer to IDRS, https://www.idrs.org/resources/fingerings/); only play one trill on the last beat, F-G, trilling the LH high A key. Watch out for the low tenor clef in m. 37. Take a good breath after the low F in m. 43, and then treat the piano dolce as a coda, playing expressively. A ritard in m. 47 on the sixteenth notes is a nice way to end this etude. 


Selection 3

Page(s): 99
Key: D Major
Etude Title: Fifty Advanced Studies, No. 27
Tempo: Quarter note 100-120
Play from Beginning to end.
Errata:
No Repeats

Performance Guide:
No repeats. 

The opening of this etude is reminiscent of the Overture to the Marriage of Figaro by W. A. Mozart with 1) much crossing of the break and 2) the C-sharp to A interval in both piano and forte dynamics. 

Keep the opening in a quiet dynamic, carefully following the written dynamics. There are only two dynamics in this etude, piano and forte, plus crescendos. This is a great chance to develop your soft playing and explore dynamic contrasts. Practice this opening in small four to five note sections with mixed rhythms using both soft and loud dynamics. Then slowly weave these smaller pieces together. Don’t rush the sixteenth notes in mm. 17-19. Notice the differences in articulations: slurred staccato as in m.17 (a slight lift), a light staccato as in m. 24, gentle accents in mm. 25, 29-31. Notice the rinforzando accents (an accent without the suddenness of a sforzando) in mm. 33, 39 and 42 are in the piano dynamic. 






Contra-Bassoon

Book - Title Editor Publisher Edition
Practical Method for the Bassoon - 50 Advanced Studies Weissenborn / Ambrosio Carl Fischer O2150 0-8258-0350-0

Selection 1

Page(s): 91
Key: G Minor
Etude Title: Fifty Advanced Studies, No. 17
Tempo: Quarter note 138-168
Play from Beginning to see errata.
Errata:
Play from beginning through m. 30 then CUT immediately to m. 60, play to the end.
Originally this errata stated to lower certain notes an octave. That has now been removed. Updated July 29.

Performance Guide:
Dynamic and style changes are critical to a successful musical performance of this etude.  The melodic, rhythmic, and articulation styles are playful and light with a nice opportunity to feature the range and tone quality of the contra. Work towards long musical lines rather than small gestures. There are mostly terraced dynamics, only two crescendos, and no decrescendos. Work on the soft dynamic and do not play everything loud. Notice that the accents are all in the piano dynamic, so use a little extra air and keep the tongue light on these special notes. Don’t forget that accidentals carry throughout the measure. Add a small ritard at the end of m. 60, followed by a breath. A small ritard in the last beat of m. 70 is appropriate.


Saxophones

Book - Title Editor Publisher Edition
J. H. Luft 24 Etudes Valerie Anderson Jeanne Music Publications JP7046

Selection 1

Page(s): 24-25
Key: E Minor
Etude Title: 14 - Allegro molto
Tempo: Quarter Note = 114-152
Play from Beginning to end.
Errata:
PLEASE make sure you possess the correct edition of the book as specified on the TMEA All-State Band Audition Etudes page. The edition number JP7046 is at the bottom of EVERY page of music of this printing. The page numbers are correct in this edition. There is a little confusion because of some other printings. Other editions may not have etudes on the same page numbers because of font choice or other reasons. Updated July 29.

In M. 44, change the G-sharp to a G-natural. Updated August 2.

Please note that the slowest tempo parameter for this etude has been changed. It was quarter note=124; however, it has been changed to quarter note=114. Updated August 21.

Performance Guide:
When preparing this etude take care to be consistent in the application of the articulations. It is very easy have the articulation that starts the etude turn the second note of each slur group into a staccato by stopping the note with the tongue instead of making it a smooth slur two/slur two combination. Be sure to maintain this smooth approach with all slur groups in the etude. In mm. 23-35 the player must take a deep enough breath to support getting all of the low B's to speak. There should be enough support for them to speak easily and resonate. Do not play so soft that the horn will not respond. Pay attention to the accents in mm. 43-46 but do not allow them to distort the tone. The eighth notes at the end of m. 54 with the slur/staccato combination should be treated as a legato tongue situation. All staccato notes should be treated with light style of tonguing. Do not let tonguing overpower tone. As always, be careful of where to take breaths. Do not disrupt slurs or phrase points. Think carefully about where the optimal places are to take a breath that maintains the integrity of the music. Look for places to add appropriate dynamics to enhance the etude.

Selection 2

Page(s): 34-35
Key: C# Minor
Etude Title: 20 - Adagio
Tempo: Eighth Note = 84-92
Play from Beginning to Ms. 24 downbeat.
Errata:
PLEASE make sure you possess the correct edition of the book as specified on the TMEA All-State Band Audition Etudes page. The edition number JP7046 is at the bottom of EVERY page of music of this printing. The page numbers are correct in this edition. There is a little confusion because of some other printings. Other editions may not have etudes on the same page numbers because of font choice or other reasons. Updated July 29.

Performance Guide:
This is a very expressive etude that offers a wonderful combination of technical and lyrical challenges. It is important to realize that even though the eighth note gets the beat, do not allow yourself to go too fast or too slow. Please stay within the recommended tempos. Too fast or too slow and the expressiveness is lost. The advanced musician will make use of the dynamics indicated to show off their control of the instrument in all ranges. Staccato notes should be treated with a light approach, while all slurred passages should be smooth. When playing the arpeggios such as in m. 9 and similar areas, be careful to not overplay the accent on the top note. Take great care in determining where to release a note in order to take a breath. Do not interrupt a slur or disrupt a phrase without consideration of how it affects the overall musical effect.

Selection 3

Page(s): 5
Key: F Major
Etude Title: 3 - Allegretto
Tempo: Quarter Note = 112-132
Play from Beginning to end.
Errata:

PLEASE make sure you possess the correct edition of the book as specified on the TMEA All-State Band Audition Etudes page. The edition number JP7046 is at the bottom of EVERY page of music of this printing. The page numbers are correct in this edition. There is a little confusion because of some other printings. Other editions may not have etudes on the same page numbers because of font choice or other reasons. Updated July 29.

In M. 61, the articulation on beat 2 should match the articulation of beat 2 in M. 59. Updated August 2.

Performance Guide:
This etude is built around the various arpeggiated figures associated with the key of F. It would be a great training exercise for the player to work on arpeggios in preparation for this study. The Bis Bb fingering will be preferred in almost all instances, however, m. 16 and m. 18 will work better with the side Bb fingering on the first occurrence and bis on the 2nd occurrence in both measures.. Take great care in preparing for the octave jumps in m. 23 and m. 25. It will be difficult to make the instrument speak the interval unless the player provides sufficient support by pushing the air and keeping the embouchure firm to make the jump. The second half of the etude provides a mixture of different articulations and slur patterns. Make sure the staccato passages are tongued lightly. There are only 3 dynamic markings in this etude so please look for places to enhance the musical effect by finding appropriate spots for dynamic contrast.


Cornet/Trumpet

Book - Title Editor Publisher Edition
40 Studies for Trumpet Wurm, Voisin International No. 2025

Selection 1

Page(s): 37
Key:
Etude Title: No. 40
Tempo: Quarter note 90-110
Play from Beginning to End.
Errata:
There are two versions of this etude on the page - play the first one in the key of E-flat concert
The last two beats of m. 10 are triplets
The first beat of m. 12 is a triplet. Updated July 29.
The first beat of m. 20 is a triplet
The articulation pattern in m. 35 should match m. 3, slurring only the entire triplet on beat three and the entire dotted-eighth sixteenth on beat 4.

Performance Guide:
With broad, large leaps and stark dynamic contrasts, this etude will show off the performer’s command of the instrument in all registers and dynamics. As you navigate the intervals of the opening, it is important to be sure that your sound is just as bold on the low E in m. 2 as it is on the high b-flat. Practice this interval carefully and build up to it over time.

Note the dynamic changes throughout, especially the contrasting dynamics in m. 17 and m. 24. Remember, just as consistency of sound is essential in all registers, the same is required at all dynamic levels.

Rhythmic accuracy is vital, especially with the triplets and dotted-eighth sixteenths. Take care not to allow the triplets influence the performance of the dotted rhythms. Practicing with subdivisions will always help ensure that sixteenth notes are properly placed.

Take the time to plan your approach during trills and know exactly how many alternations you will place in each. Consider ending the trill in m. 25 on the “and” of four to leave space for the grace notes that follow, and always end trills on the principal note. All grace notes should be performed before the next beat, not on it.

Consider your choice of tempo carefully. This etude could lure the performer into too fast a tempo or speeding up over time. The indication of Maestoso is much more important that the overall tempo you choose. Perform this work as stately and majestically as you can while maintaining a steady pulse.

Selection 2

Page(s): 11
Key:
Etude Title: No. 9
Tempo: Eighth note 70-80
Play from Beginning to end.
Errata:
m. 10 - First three beats, including trill and grace notes, should be slurred.
m. 16 - Trilled F# and grace notes should slur to downbeat of next measure.

Performance Guide:
This beautiful etude provides the performer an opportunity to be expressive throughout the entire range of the instrument and at all dynamic levels. Work to create as much contrast as possible between forte and piano, especially following the climax of m. 17. Use these dynamic changes as a way to tell a compelling story!

Knowing your approach during trilled passages will be key. Take the time to plan exactly how many alternations you will place in trill keeping in mind that trills should end on the principal note. All grace notes in this etude are best placed before the next pulse.

Breath marks indicate a lift and an opportunity to take a breath, but be careful not to clip the ends of your phrases. Taper any notes before a breath in a beautiful way. Practice taking full breaths quickly. This will aid you in all styles of playing and allow your performances to have uninterrupted natural sounding phrases.

Choose a starting tempo carefully and keep the faster passages with 32nd notes in mind when you begin. Starting too fast may make the latter portions of this etude more difficult or force you to slow down in your performance.

Selection 3

Page(s): 18
Key:
Etude Title: No. 18
Tempo: Quarter Note = 100-116
Play from Beginning to end.
Errata:
m. 16 (second ending before the key change) should not have a rest on beat four

M. 22 The 16th notes are slurred.

No repeats. Play second endings only.

Performance Guide:
No repeats. Play second endings only.

This is a lively etude full of rhythmic and dynamic variety that navigates the entire range of the instrument.

Take care to perform as rhythmically precise as possible. With sixteenths, dotted rhythms, and triplets, careful subdivision is required. Work to keep all dotted rhythms from being influenced by triplet subdivisions.

Note the dynamic changes at the start of many sections and the indicated crescendos throughout. Strive to have as much contrast as possible from louder to softer dynamics and allow this dynamic palate to create as much drama and storytelling as possible.

Pay close attention to the timing and placing of the rests throughout this entire work. It is a common error to rush or speed up through these moments. Stay steady. Careful practice with a metronome will help ensure that the performer is exact with regard to pulse and time.

Another helpful practice tip is to record a performance and listen back. Can you clap or conduct a steady beat along with your recorded performance? Use these recordings as an opportunity to learn about your tendencies and make adjustments.


F Horn

Book - Title Editor Publisher Edition
335 Selected Melodious, Progressive, and Technical Studies - Book 1 Pottag / Andraud Southern Music Company B134

Selection 1

Page(s): 121
Key:
Etude Title: No. 104
Tempo: Quarter note 104-126
Play from Beginning to end.
Errata:
Be aware that all notes that are beamed in groups of 6 are indeed sextuplets. Also, the last three notes in M. 41 comprise a triplet.
Beat 2 should be tied to beat 3 in measures 3, 9, and 34. The first two notes in measure 11 (F# to G) should be slurred. Updated July 29.
In m. 53, the slur should end on the D and the C should be marked staccato (as in m. 55). Updated July 31.
In m. 54, the dotted eighth note C should be slurred to the sixteenth note A. Updated July 31.

Performance Guide:
This etude is best performed with energy and fiery passion. Avoid confusing "con forza" with "add tension." Keep the tempo steady through the sextuplets and triplets. Avoid the pitfall of slowing accidentally by keeping forward motion on the dotted eighth sixteenth notes, especially from mm. 25-29. Be very expressive in the minor section, bars 40-43, without slowing down. Take full advantage of the forte, major section (m. 44) to bring out the stylistic contrast. The performer may choose hold back tempo (slightly) to add drama to mm. 31, 51, and 56.

Selection 2

Page(s): 40
Key: G Minor (Bb Major)
Etude Title: Andante
Tempo: Quarter note 56-68
Play from Beginning to end.
Errata:

Performance Guide:
This is a beautiful etude, showcasing the horn's tone quality, lyricism and low range. Some of the phrases are long, therefore a faster tempo is recommended in order to make the phrase in one breath.

The bass clef measures are written in "Old Notation" and should be played as if written an octave higher. For intonation purposes, use B-flat fingering for the low E-flat, D, and C-sharp (as in m. 3 and subsequent measures). In this case it would be T-1, T-12, T-23. A general embouchure tip for low range is to drop the jaw down and bring it forward.

Articulate the portato sixteenth notes in m. 20 with a legato tongue. The rhythm and notes for the turns in m. 19 are sixteenth A, thirty-second triplet B-flat, A, G, sixteenth A, sixteenth B-flat. On beat 2 it is sixteenth C, thirty-second triplet D-C-B-flat, sixteenth C, sixteenth D.


Selection 3

Page(s): 61
Key: C Major
Etude Title: No. 45
Tempo: Quarter note 75-90
Play from Beginning to end.
Errata:
M. 9 - Should be F-sharps throughout.
In MM. 15-16, play lower octave when given a split.
Add staccatissimo marks to the downbeats of mm. 15-16. Updated July 31.
Add a staccato mark to the downbeat of m. 33. Updated July 31.

Performance Guide:
This etude calls for flexibility and accuracy from the player. The "con grazia" feel should prevail over tempo. Keep tempo steady in the sections with large leaps and strive to play high and low notes the same volume. In MM. 15-16, play lower octave when given a split. Articulation specificity is key, and one would do well to interpret the staccato marks as "lighter, separate" than simply "shorter."


Tenor Trombone

Book - Title Editor Publisher Edition
Advanced Musical Etudes, 112 Studies based on Blazhevitch's Etudes Fink Accura No. 154

Selection 1

Page(s): 40-41
Key:
Etude Title: No. 60
Tempo: Quarter note 96-108
Play from Beginning to end.
Errata:
In M. 24, play the lower octave on the split.
m. 47 - the 3rd note should be a C-natural, not a C-sharp;
m. 48 - add a slur from the 4th note to the 5th note.
In the last measure, play the lower octave on the split.

Performance Guide:
The major challenge for players lies in masking the highly-kinetic motion of the slide while maintaining the playful ‘giocoso’ style of the music. Developing a diction in the ‘ slur two, tongue two’ sixteenth-note articulations that recur throughout will yield a stylistically appropriate means of technical facility for the player and sense of ease to the listener. For example, I recommend an articulation similar to “Dah dit-dit-dit,” that accentuates that first sixteenth and separates the remaining three sixteenths.

Players should also give careful attention to the dynamic contrasts throughout—making a substantive change in volume between the forte/piano terraces in mm. 1-24. This gives question/answer sense of dialogue in the phrasing leading to a bold arpeggiated exclamation in mm.23-24. Note: the low D in m.24 should tune in a very low 4th position (very close to 5th).

The ‘Poco meno mosso’ section beginning at m. 25 is a lyrical scene change to G major a should be performed in a slighter slower tempo but with forward direction. Make use of the written articulations and dynamic markings as a guide for nuance, expressive phrasing, and appropriate rubato.

The high B in m.36 should be played with a full singing sound that sustains through the descending scale passage that follows. Note that the high B tunes in a lowered 2nd position. Players will need to be sure to adjust the tuning for the B, the A, and the G as they will each tune in a slightly different 2nd position.

The descending G major arpeggiatic pattern in mm.54-56 can be played entirely in 4th position (except for the low B in m.56). However, it is critical to make appropriate micro-adjustments in tuning. Only the G’s will be in an exact 4th position.

Note: The third section, mm. 61 to the end, is an exact copy of mm.1-24.

Selection 2

Page(s): 66
Key:
Etude Title: No. 86
Tempo: Eighth Note = 88-96
Play from Beginning to end.
Errata:
Measure 28: change the B on the 4th eighth note beat (the first note of the second rhythmic figure) to a low E on the first ledger line below the staff.

Performance Guide:
C-sharp minor is a friendly key for the trombone. The slide movement through scale patterns and arpeggios is smooth and physically efficient. The key also fits uniquely within the trombones practical range which allows for maximum melodic content. Blazhevich beautifully utilizes these qualities in Etude #86 by showcasing the full range and expressive potential of the trombone.

This etude contains a wealth of musical expression, and players will need to navigate a complex relationship between melody, rhythm, and phrasing. The melody lies within a rhythmic framework of syncopation that often places the melodic weight on either the 3rd or 6th eighth-note of the measure, offset from the stronger pulses on the 1st and 4th eighth-notes. This ‘hidden pulse creates an illusion of melodic freedom when performed accurately.

A fast tempo is not a hallmark of this music. Keep the performance tempo near the indicated 96 bpm, and work for beauty, sustain, and phrasing. The con anima in m.1 is suggestive of an “animated” musical style in which the melody is intentionally hurried or slowed, but I do not recommend taking too much liberty with timing--at least not until the rhythm is absolutely securely performed in strict time. Players should try to achieve the con anima feel through a liberal use of expressive phrasing and a broad dynamic range.

Players should use a metronome with subdivided eighth-notes from the very first reading. Once rhythmic accuracy is confident and exact, players will then need to incorporate the use of appropriate, yet expressive rubato. For example, add an organic tapering of the tempo in the cadential figures at m.4 and m.18. Also, adding a very subtle accelerando in the arpeggios at the beginnings of phrases can help to provide the con anima feel. In mm.26-27, take your time through the arpeggios using expressive rubato and tonal sustain in order to outline the implied chordal harmonic motion.

The arpeggios throughout the etude serve to give direction and ‘animation’ to the music. Even more critically, the arpeggios function as harmony to drive the melodic line. Each note should be intoned smoothly with controlled pitch and your absolute best and most consistent tone quality. Practice the arpeggios slowly. Work for beauty, sustain, control, and pitch.

Measures 28-29 are likely the most technically demanding of the etude—difficult, but not impossible, It is critical to make intervallic leaps such as these part of your everyday warm-up and fundamental training. However, in the context of the etude the best approach for achieving accuracy is to prioritize the ‘horizontal’ melodic line over the ‘vertical’ challenges created by the leaps. Focus on the flow of sound through each pitch. This infers harmonic tension/release. One could imagine how a great cellist could perform this music with perfect beauty and free of any technical issues. Work for that!

Russian music is highly expressive, so performing this type of music in strict time without flow or dynamics shaping will give the music a sterile and flat sound. Conversely, overdoing the rubato and being haphazard with time will give the music a contrived and insincere feel. Players who perform the music with beauty of tone as the priority, with proper timing and phrasing, and with a full expressive range of dynamics will be in strong contention for advancement throughout the TMEA audition process.

Note: measure 28, the B on the 4th eighth note beat (the first note of the second rhythmic figure) should be a low E on the first ledger line below the staff.

Selection 3

Page(s): 37
Key:
Etude Title: No. 57
Tempo: Dotted Quarter Note = 72-80
Play from Beginning to end.
Errata:
In measure 29, all the notes that are notated as an A are actually A-flat. Updated July 31.

Performance Guide:
This etude uses several contrasting stylistic selections and offers players opportunities for interpretive decision-making throughout. Of primary consideration for a performance of this etude that leads to advancement in the TMEA auditions, will be accuracy in rhythm and in time, as well as consistency in articulation and diction. Players should begin learning the music with very slow tempo using a metronome (with subdivisions) to ensure proper rhythmic placement and stylistic consistency.

The opening pesante should be performed with a bold yet controlled forte dynamic based on a strong dotted-quarter note pulse. The recurring ‘dotted-eighth sixteenth eighth’ figure gives the music its dance and melodic direction. The three-notes in this rhythmic figure are each played quite differently, so careful attention should be given to learning how each note is played. The first note of the figure (dotted-eighth) should be well-accented with sustain and breadth. The second note (sixteenth) should be pointed and light, but non-accented (think of this sixteenth note as being like a ‘pick-up’ to the eighth note that follows). The third note of the figure (eighth) should be non-accented, lifted, and resonant (not clipped). One could compare the rhythm of Wagner’s Ride of The Valkyries as having similar weight as this etude. Another way to think go it is by saying the word coconut as “CO co-nut” in this rhythm.

In mm.9,10, 46, and 47, the rhythm changes in the second half of the measure in an unexpected but ear-catching way. Emphasize the rhythm change by keeping the accent over the dotted-eighth note.

The Con Moto in mm.13-21 should be played with a significantly softer dynamic, a light detached articulation on the staccato eighths, and a full length on the quarter notes and dotted quarters. In m.16 play with a sudden singing forte and follow the dynamics as written. The ‘slur-two, tongue-two’ articulation in the sixteenth figures should be performed as one legato sixteenth following by three separated sixteenths. The diction should be something akin to “DAH-dit-dit-dit.”

The musical character changes again in mm.22-30 to a very lyrical ear-pleasing E-flat major. Pay close attention to the articulations, but maintain a sustained sound throughout the phrase.
The eighth rest in m.22 comes by very quickly and you will need a full breath during this rest to begin the long phrase that follows. Practice taking the breath by playing mm.21-23 as a regular part of your practice so taking a full breath in this short space comes naturally during your performance.

The section in mm.31-37 is a transitionary phrase that begins in a lighter style. Keep the volume low then follow the crescendo in mm.35 to grow in intensity into the reprise of the pesante style at the Tempo I in m.38.

The last four measures should be a final exclamation point using a ‘tasteful fortissimo’ in the last four me. Play with projection, but just be mindful of maintaining good pitch and strict tempo to the last note.

Students should choose a performance tempo carefully. Performing the music too quickly or too slowly will detract from the intended musical character and may adversely affect a player’s audition placement. The recommended tempo range gives flexibility for the player to choose a suitable tempo that maintains the character of the etude.


Bass Trombone

Book - Title Editor Publisher Edition
20 Etudes for Bass Trombone Lew Gillis Southern Music Company - Hal Leonard B214 #HL 03770297

Selection 1

Page(s): 3
Key: G Major
Etude Title: 1
Tempo: Quarter Note = 92-104
Play from Beginning to end.
Errata:
In M. 39, the last note of the measure is missing the sharp sign next to the "A". The slide position of the note is marked correctly (5), but the accidental is not printed next to the note. The last note of M. 39 is A#. Updated August 11.

Performance Guide:
Etude No. 1 provides an excellent opportunity for the young bass trombonist to explore many different valve and position combinations. I would encourage each student to map out the many different combinations we have available to us and to try each one of them out carefully at various speeds. There may be some instances in which we choose to play notes in different positions even within the same phrase. The ability to match tone quality and pitch regardless of the position or valve being used is an essential skill that must be routinely practiced. While there are many suggestions included in the book, please take the opportunity to implore your own ideas of what combinations work best for you. In regards to musical style, I like to think of this etude as having a light and agile sound with a full mezzo-forte dynamic throughout, while also implying natural musicianly shapes to each phrase. Young trombonists will experience the most success with this etude by dissecting each phrase and technical challenge slowly and methodically with the goal in mind of assembling the etude back together once each phrase can be played successfully.

Selection 2

Page(s): 21
Key: C
Etude Title: 14
Tempo: Quarter Note = 60-68
Play from Beginning to end.
Errata:

Performance Guide:
Etude No. 14 will allow for students to work on lyricism through consistently large intervals and rotating scale patterns. Musically, there are several section of the etude that remind me of playing the 'Sarabande' movements in the Bach Cello Suites. Listen to and study professional recordings of cellists (Pablo Casals is a personal favorite) to better understand musical nuance and phrasing in this style of music. When performing music like this, it is important to not let any notes dramatically stick out due to the range that they are written in or the note they are coming from. It is a useful trick on trombone to lightly articulate when ascending through a slur to avoid both a smeary sound, or response issues creating a gap in the sound. In my lessons with bass trombonist Charlie Vernon, we often sat and talked about the "Death of TWA" (bad transitions) and perfecting idea of music is simply one beautiful sound followed by another beautiful sound, with absolutely nothing in between. In other words, beautiful singing sounds with perfect transitions. Students should feel at liberty to stress individual notes and add dynamic shapes while remaining true to the idea of long, singing, natural phrases, and avoiding dramatic changes that would distract the listener rather than intrigue them. Many of the alternate slide positions printed are not my personal choices, students should feel at liberty to use the best options for them based on preference, experience, and the instrument they are performing on.

Selection 3

Page(s): 20
Key: Bb Major
Etude Title: 13
Tempo: Dotted Quarter Note = 64-72
Play from Beginning to end.
Errata:

Performance Guide:
Etude No. 13 will provide young bass trombonists the opportunity to explore music in a dance-like feel. I like to imagine that this etude is felt similarly to a waltz, with a natural emphasis on beat 1 while beats 2 and 3 flow back towards beat 1, as if the music is constantly flowing in a circle. Many young musicians may try to play this in a clunky, robot-like fashion. The most successful musicians will perform this etude with fluid phrases and sounds that flow easily from one note to the next. While the notes will not be slurred or smeared, they should also not be staccato. Play each note with a full, resonant tone to achieve the correct note shape. In regards to dynamics, I would suggest performing with a wide array of shapes that enhance the musical line. When shaping music, take care to ensure that your shapes are not dramatic or overdone, be tasteful. There are several previously marked suggestions for positions that may serve you well, but I would encourage you to practice several different options and select the most comfortable slide/valve combination that works for you.


Euphonium

Book - Title Editor Publisher Edition
Selected Studies H. Voxman Rubank / Hal Leonard No. 160 HLO4470730

Selection 1

Page(s): 43
Key: A Major
Etude Title: A Major - Tempo di polacca
Tempo: Quarter Note = 86-96
Play from Beginning to Ms. 44.
Errata:
Play beginning to m. 44, no repeat, no D.C.

M. 39, Beat 3, 2nd 16th note should be marked an A natural, not an A sharp. Updated August 17, 9:30 PM. This is an update from an earlier correction on this same day. It had previously stated the A natural should be on beat 2. It is beat 3, not beat 2.

Performance Guide:
The tempo marking for this etude is “Tempo di pollaca” which gives a good indication of tempo and style. Rhythms should be very precise and the tempo very strict in keeping with the dance-like style of the piece. Be especially careful that the sixteenth note triplets represent three notes evenly spaced over half a beat. Staccato notes should be bouncy but not too short, and accents should be observed with weight of breath, not with a harder tongue. At the indicated tempos, the grace notes will be very quick and will take time away from the previous beat: all of the notes in any given measure should be in the same place with or without the grace notes. Observe dynamics and work to shape each phrase with a particular dynamic direction. There should be no tempo change at the trio, but be careful to observe the change of key. Above all, make sure this etude dances!

Selection 2

Page(s): 50
Key: B Major
Etude Title: B Major - Adagio
Tempo: Quarter Note = 60-70
Play from Beginning to end.
Errata:
Sforzando in m. 9 should be on the downbeat of m. 10

Performance Guide:
One of the challenges of this etude is the key of B major. Be sure that you can fluently play the B major scale in all registers before you begin work on this etude. One euphonium specific recommendation is to be sure to play the opening D-sharp in tune. This is a very sharp note on some euphoniums and can make the subsequent notes sound out of tune if not played correctly. Alternate fingerings of 1-3 or 1-4 (on compensating euphoniums only) can help tame this sometimes problematic note. Play in a flowing, song-like style, paying particular attention to connecting all notes and observing all dynamics. Accents should be of the breath-accent variety, and sforzandos mark arrival points, and should not be over emphasized. Note that a variation on the theme of the piece is presented starting in m. 17. Keep the original theme in mind as you play this, making sure that the 16th notes are smooth, even and not compressed. Staccato marks under a slur indicated a connected but articulated style. Make the dynamic sweeps in m. 24-25 and m. 26-27 dramatic, smooth and beautiful to end the piece.

Selection 3

Page(s): 32
Key: Eb Minor
Etude Title: Eb Minor - Allegro Molto (quasi valse)
Tempo: Dotted Half Note = 92-108
Play from Beginning to end.
Errata:
None

Performance Guide:
In preparation for studying this etude, be sure that you can fluently play the G-flat major scale and the related E-flat harmonic and melodic minor scales. The “Allegro molto” tempo indication would indicate a “very fast” tempo, with each measure receiving a single beat. Be very careful to observe the articulation marks: slur and tongue exactly as indicated. The piano dynamic at the start of the piece should grow quickly until the diminuendo in m. 8, then grow again to a peak in m. 21. Stay strong until measure 25, and treat the piano as a subito piano. The “poco piu mosso” in m. 37 should be a sudden but slight (poco) increase in tempo. Keep subdividing quarter notes through the hemiolas of mm. 37-44 to keep from slowing down. The slight rit. In mm. 60-61 is just to return to the original tempo, and must be subdivided mentally since there is no rhythmic movement through the tied notes. M. 62 starts a long crescendo culminating in the forte high C-flat. It may be necessary to break a slur after the half-notes in m. 74 or m. 76 in order to get a breath. The C-flat in m. 79 can be fingered 1-2 or 2. Check with a tuner for the best intonation on your instrument. M. 84 starts a long diminuendo to the end of the piece, with the notes getting progressively softer and lighter to the end.


Tuba

Book - Title Editor Publisher Edition
60 Selected Studies for BBb Tuba Kopprasch Robert King Music / Alphonse Leduc Editions Musicales No. 278 M-046-28602-8

Selection 1

Page(s): 18
Key:
Etude Title: No. 24
Tempo: Eighth Note = 112-120
Play from Beginning to end.
Errata:

Performance Guide:
Think of this etude as being in 12/16 time, which is like 12/8, but where the 16th notes get the triple division of the beat, instead of the 8th note. When you do this, you will convert the written eighth notes to dotted eights, helping to ensure that you play them long enough, while also allowing time to take a breath.

It might not look this way at first, but there are ample opportunities to breathe at the ends of phrases. Be sure to keep the longer notes long, even if you’re taking a breath, without losing any time. In the horn version edited by Michelle Stebleton and published by Carl Fischer (this is exercises No. 30), the breath marks follow the eighth notes only. Be sure to take a full, relaxed breath after the fermatas.

Always bring out the grace notes. Make sure that they have full tone despite being quick and decorative. As they are ornamental, they come slightly before the beat. Arban’s famous Complete Method for trumpet (trombone or tuba) has “short appoggiatura” or grace note studies to further work on this concept.

In the Encore Music Publishers edition, Dr. Jerry Young claims that the target tempo is 120 beats per minute (bpm), and we feel that 112-120 bpm is an appropriate tempo range, keeping in mind that the eighth note gets the beat. [If you’re thinking in 12/16 time, then dotted eighth note gets the beat.]

Like most music in compound meters (or with a triplet feel), let this have a flowing swing. The staccato notes contrast the slurred note groups. Keep them crisp and articulate, but you do not need to exaggerate their shortness. Observe the written dynamics.

Selection 2

Page(s): 11
Key:
Etude Title: No. 15
Tempo: Eighth Note = 58-66
Play from Beginning to end.
Errata:
No repeats.
Pick up note to m. 4, change the forte marking to a piano marking. Updated August 17.
M. 14--move the natural sign from the bottom of the turn symbol to the top. Updated August 17.
M. 21, remove the forte marking at the end of the measure and allow the decrescendo to continue through the end of the phrase in m. 22. Updated 8/17

Performance Guide:
In this study, the eighth note gets the beat.

Play at a range of 58-66 bpm (beats per minute), in accordance with Dr. Jerry Young in the Encore Music Publishers edition. Multiply your tempo by two and then set your metronome, which is the sixteenth-note pulse. The metronome is crucial to slow studies.

Don’t play the 32nd notes too fast. They’re not “fast,” they’re exactly half the speed of sixteenth notes.

Dr. Young recommends that you master the time and articulation elements first, playing the entire exercise at a moderate dynamic, before you introduce the written dynamics.

In the TMEA-sanctioned edition published by Robert King through Alphonse Leduc, the “V” markings are breath marks. Some of these markings are different from the horn edition of Michelle Stebleton, published by Carl Fischer, however, both sets work and contain concessions with regards to potentially segmenting the phrases. I suggest following the breaths as marked in the King edition, taking additional breaths as needed and where possible. Try to take quickl relaxed breaths to keep the intention of the full phrases.

The TMEA/King edition also has a written-out example of how to execute the “turn” in m. 7. Copy this technique for the “turns” in subsequent measures. In mm. 13 and 21, play a diatonic (of the key) C-sharp in the turn. In m. 14, play a C-natural in the turn as indicated by the natural sign in the turn symbol. Arban’s famous Complete Method for trumpet (trombone or tuba) has Gruppetto studies to further work on this concept.

Selection 3

Page(s): 23
Key:
Etude Title: No. 30
Tempo: Quarter Note = 104-116
Play from Beginning to M. 34.
Errata:
Do not take the "D.C. al Fine"

Performance Guide:
So much great music is based at least in part on scales and scale patterns. Keep the Allegretto section moving, bouncy, and melodic. To contrast the B-section, the opening should be articulate and declamatory. Keep the dolce section flowing and make a contrast in style between this and the A-section.

In the Encore Music Publishers edition, Dr. Jerry Young suggests a tempo of quarter note = 112 bpm (beats per minute), and we suggest an appropriate tempo range of 104-116 bpm. This is within the ranges suggested by other editions.

In the Carl Fischer horn edition (this is No. 29), Hornist Michelle Stebleton suggests short, quick breaths after the 5th eighth note in the first full measure, and the same placement in mm. 3, 5, 6, 7, 11, and 16. Stebleton suggests a deeper breath after the 5th eighth note in m. 4. (For these numberings, I am not counting the anacrusis as a numbered measure). There are many ways to practice taking quick breaths. You can stop at each instance and take a full, deep breath. Then, over time, as you get used to that breathing pattern, try to take in the same amount of air faster (in a beat, then half a beat, etc.) so that, ultimately, little-to-no time is lost. You can also practice playing scales and other exercises, “sipping” air quickly between each note without dropping notes or slowing down the tempo.

In the horn edition, the dolce section is marked Poco vivo. However, the triplet feel of the B-section will make the etude sound and feel like it is suddenly faster, so there’s no need to change tempo.

Observe all dynamics. Hornist James Boldin suggests practicing in the following way: “play only the loud passages-counting the rests in between-then play only the soft passages, putting them together once they’re mastered individually.”


Percussion - Snare

Book - Title Editor Publisher Edition
Portraits in Rhythm A. Cirone Belwin Mills/Alfred HAB00101

Selection 1

Page(s): 19
Key:
Etude Title: No. 17
Tempo: Dotted Eighth Note= 84-88
Play from Beginning to end.
Errata:
Please note that the tempo now reads Dotted Eighth Note=84-88. The originally stated fastest tempo of 92 is now 88. Updated July 31.

In M. 33, in some books, there is a printer's error of a faded dot following the first note/roll. The faded dot should not be in the music at all. The first note is an 8th note, not a dotted-eighth note. So the measure is an eighth note, followed by a dotted eighth note. Updated July 31.

Performance Guide:
Anthony Cirone’s Portraits in Rhythm Etude #17 is a musical snare drum etude that demands precise timing, strong dynamic contrast and articulate rolls. I recommend to play this etude at dotted-eighth note = 84-92 which is faster than originally marked on the score. This allows for challenges with musical phrasing within constant meter changes and dynamic shifts.

Utilizing a 16th note base, Etude #17 shifts meters often primarily focusing on groups 2 and 3 sixteenth notes. The sixteenth note remains constant throughout indicated by the composer in mm. 4. Players are encouraged to use a slight accent on the down-beat of each bar to outline the meter. Rhythmic groupings organized by the meter should be felt and heard clearly.

All rolls should be concert (closed) rolls and not rudimental rolls (this includes single 16th notes with a roll slash as in line 5). Avoid pressing the sticks into the head to create these rolls, but rather allow the sticks to bounce freely to create a beautiful sustain on the drum. Note in mm 26-33 that the rolls are detached with each roll having a “fresh attack” indicated by the staccato marking.

Players should play over the snare bed for consistent snare response. It is appropriate to utilize playing areas closer to the edge of the drum for softer passages. Avoid playing in the center of the drum at all times.


Percussion - Keyboard (2 Mallet)

Book - Title Editor Publisher Edition
Masterworks for Mallets Gottlieb Row-Loff Productions RLP-12102000 (2006)

Selection 1

Page(s): 40-41
Key: C Minor
Etude Title: Fantasie and Menuett
Tempo: Dotted Quarter Note = 60-64
Play from Beginning to end.
Errata:
In M, 28, the first note in beat 2 should be a B-natural, NOT a B-flat. Updated July 31.

In M. 28, the "&" of beat 2 should be an A-natural, NOT an A-flat. Updated August 21.

Performance Guide:
Fantasie and Menuett (Suite No. 5) from Masterworks for Mallets arranged by Beth Gottlieb is a wonderful transcription that offers students musical/technical challenges combined with stylistic variation. Originally written for harpsichord by Johann Mattheson (1681-1764), this Fantasie and Menuett is in the Baroque style similar to the music of Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750).

The Baroque “Fantasie” (Fantasy) is a composition based on improvisation and expressive rubato exuberance. However, the player should play in time as indicated. Performers may consider slight expressive ritards at cadential points.

Stickings for the Fantasy should be consistent and regular when possible. For example, the sticking at mm. 9-10 could be RLRLRL RLLRRL and then repeated through mm.11-15. When in doubt, alternate mallet sticking for the best control, and use double-stickings when necessary.

After a brief Adagio transition at mm.39, the Fantasy is followed by a Menuett (Minuet), an elegant dance in triple meter. This allows for the player to shape 8-bar phrases into a musical dialogue with grace and style. Most of the Minuet is marked at the piano dynamic with only Letter D marked at forte.

Overall the music should be lyrical in nature and played with a light touch with medium hard mallets. Diminuendos should be utilized with phrase endings. Only at Letters A and D does the arranger indicate that the player crescendo into the following phrase.

Record yourself often and make corrections on your music while listening. The more you listen, practice and study the better you will be!


Percussion - Keyboard (4 Mallet)

Book - Title Editor Publisher Edition
#MarimbaBaby: A Marimba Songbook Mark Ford Musicon Publications 2018

Selection 1

Page(s): 16-17
Key: G Major
Etude Title: Sweet Dreams
Tempo: Dotted Quarter Note = 56-56
Play from three pickup notes to M. 21 to Ms. 36, take the second ending and go to the end.
Errata:
Begin with the 3 pick ups notes to measure 21.
Do not take the first ending at mm. 36. Take the 2nd ending and go to the end.Players may only play the 4.3 octave version of Sweet Dreams. To play Sweet Dreams on a 4.3 marimba follow these instructions:
In measures 22 and 26 – play B2 instead of G2.
In measures 29, 33, 42 – play the first four 8th notes in the bass clef up an octave. The right hand is unchanged.
In measure 46 – Play the low G2 up an octave

Performance Guide:
Note: TMEA is not requiring the future use of 5 octave marimbas for auditions. The comments previously posted by the selector were not official TMEA policy and have been removed. (posted 7/25)

Sweet Dreams is a flowing lullaby with a cascading melody. Make every effort to keep the accompaniment soft and let the melody sing without playing too loudly. Create dynamic contour in the melody by giving higher pitches slightly more dynamic intensity. The chorus at measure 29 should be full and resonant. Overall the music should be lyrical in nature and played with a light touch with medium hard mallets with a slightly softer mallet in the #1 position.

Record yourself often and make corrections on your music while listening. The more you listen, practice and study the better you will be!


Percussion - Timpani

Book - Title Editor Publisher Edition
The Solo Timpanist Firth Carl Fischer O4402 0-8258-0914-2

Selection 1

Page(s): 39
Key:
Etude Title: XXII
Tempo: Eighth note 88-96
Play from Beginning to end.
Errata:
The dotted quarter note in measure 17 should have three slashes on its stem to make it a roll.

Performance Guide:
Vic Firth’s Etude XXII is a timpani etude that demands clear tone, precise tuning, strong dynamic contrast and musical timing. Players should use medium to medium-hard timpani mallets. If a stool is utilized, be sure that the height of the stool allows for the player to deliver a fluid stroke with rebound.

Play this adagio etude in a lyrical manner. Focus on accurate rhythms within the slow tempo.

Glissandos from a full-sized note to a grace note (mm. 9-10), strike only the first note and gliss down to the lower note; when both first and last notes are full sized but not rolled (mm. 11, 13), strike both notes. Rolled glissandos (mm. 10-12) should be held for their full value. All glissandos are to be executed precisely in rhythm, with careful attention to intonation. Note that mm. 9-11 are played on the 29" drum, and mm. 12-13 are played on the 26" drum.

All tuning should be done in the precise time allotted. The player should “move in time” and coordinate tuning with the required rest counting. During practice the player should sing each set of pitches to be tuned. Use a tuning fork to practice singing/tuning. The use of a pitch-pipe is not recommended.

Strive for consistent tone by playing 2-5 inches from the rim (playing areas will be slightly deeper on the larger timpani.) Always allow the mallets to lift and rebound off the head. Avoid down-stroking. Listen to each drum within the phrase for a clear musical performance.

Record yourself playing each section of this etude for stronger self-evaluation. As you listen to your recording, write your ideas for improvement on the music.