All-State Band Audition Etudes

This is the official listing of the Band Division All-State Audition Material for 2020–2021. All amendments, corrections and errata will become official only when it is published here.

The TMEA All-State Performance Guides are provided as a tool to help you. Be sure to make note of any changes that may appear here during the upcoming months. Errata will not be posted in the Southwestern Musician magazine. Should you discover any errata in the music that may have been missed, please notify the State Band Division Chair.


Flute and Piccolo

Book Title: Flute Etudes Book
Editor: Mary Karen Clardy
Publisher: European American Music Corp. or Schott
Edition: EA 764 0-913574-96-1
Etude Selector Video Performance Guide


Flute and Piccolo Selection 1

Etude Title: Op. 107 / 3
Page(s): 81
Key: F Major
Tempo: Quarter Note = 104–126

Play from Beginning to End (no repeat).

Errata:
m. 4 - 3rd note of beat 3 and 4th note of beat 4 should be B-flat; 2nd note of beat 4 should be E-natural (Revised 7/14)
m. 12 – 1st note of beat 4 is C-natural.
m. 14- the last two notes of beat 4 should be 16th notes and not 32nd notes.-Revised 7/15/2020
m. 15- 1st note of beat 4 is an E-natural
Clarification: last note of m. 15 is B-flat (accidental does not carry through the octave)

Piccolo:
m. 3- C is up the octave
m. 8- play beats 3 and 4 up the octave
m. 9- C is up the octave
m. 20- C# is up the octave
m. 24- C is up the octave
m. 26- C is up the octave

Performance Guide:
This charming etude should be performed with character and style as your priority, never sacrificing those elements for speed. Contributing greatly to that character are the dynamics, which should be observed closely and treated as subito (instant) dynamic changes except where a crescendo is indicated in the last line.

While the etude is written in the style of the Baroque composer Handel (“alla Handel”) the ornamentation should not entirely follow Baroque performance practice. The trills do not require an upper neighbor or resolution notes (senza risoluzione). The mordents should be placed directly on the downbeats, resulting in a quick triplet on the beat. It will be helpful to practice these without the mordent to solidify the rhythm, then add it back in.

Accents throughout the etude should be played with vibrato and depth, not a harsh articulation.

The mordent in m. 9 should be E-flat to F-natural. The rhythm in m. 16 is a common stumbling block, and use of the thumb B-flat fingering (compared to one-and-one B-flat) will assist with technical facility through this and many of the passages.

Terms:

Allegro alla Handel - Lively, in the style of Handel
Non troppo brillante – Not too brilliant/bright/fast
Grave il suono – (Literal translation: somber, heavy sound.) Implied meaning: full, resonant tone
Grazioso – Graceful
Senza risoluzione – Without resolution (trills should not have turns at the termination)


Flute and Piccolo Selection 2

Etude Title: Op. 21 / 10
Page(s): 34-35
Key: C# Minor
Tempo: Quarter note 56–62

Play from Beginning to downbeat of m. 50 (omit first ending - m. 8).

Errata:
m. 5: Play all slurred (to the downbeat of m. 6) or acknowledge the two-note slur by tonguing the third note (E-natural) and slurring to the downbeat of m. 6.
m. 7: Omit the first ending and continue the slur from m. 7 to the downbeat of m. 9.

Piccolo:
m. 44: Starting with the 2nd note, play the entire measure one octave higher (8va).
m. 45: Play as written.

Performance Guide:
Andante cantabile (Romanza) means a moderately slow walking tempo with a Romantic singing style. Play this etude with expressive vibrato, forward motion to destination notes and elegant tapers at the ends of phrases. Let your interpretation also be inspired by the composer’s indications of dolce (sweetly) and lamentabile (sadly).

Practice subdividing all long notes and develop comfort with the meter by singing your part while conducting in three. This will teach you to breathe in time, use tasteful rubato and connect to the meter throughout the changing rhythms and tempos (un poco piu mosso in m. 26 is slightly faster, the tranquillo in m. 45 can be a little slower and the rall. from mm. 47-50 should slow down gradually).

For excellent intonation (especially on C-sharps) match the color and quality of each note to the surrounding notes. Practice strategically with a tuner and drones to develop your listening skills in the key of C-sharp minor. The inverted or upper mordent in m. 15 should played as two grace notes (G-sharp and A) before the marked sixteenth note G-sharp. Play the turn in m. 16 as a sixteenth note C-sharp followed by triplet thirty-second notes (D-sharp, C-sharp, B-sharp) and a sixteenth note C-sharp. Play the written sixteenth note D-sharp as indicated. Practice the unornamented rhythms alternating with the ornamented versions to maintain flow and rhythmic integrity.


Flute and Piccolo Selection 3

Etude Title: Cantabile alla Moderna
Page(s): 23
Key: A Major
Tempo: Quarter Note = 112–136

Play from Beginning to end.

Errata:
None

Performance Guide:
This etude is titled “Catabile alla Moderna” meaning in a modern, singing style and should be performed with singing vibrato and a full tone. This etude presents opportunities to show off the full dynamic range of the flute.

Special attention should also be given to the various styles and articulations. For example, the opening m. 1-8 should be played connected and legato. Beginning with m. 9 there is a shift to a detached, articulated style and in m. 19 the accents should be brought out.

In m. 22 follow the allargando direction and pull the tempo back slightly, creating space for the three grace notes to be placed before beat one of the following measure.

Allegro maestoso- Fast and stately
Con ardore- with passion
Ben eguale- very equal
Allargando- widening or stretching


Soprano Clarinets

Book Title: Artistic Studies, Book 1 - From the French School
Editor: David Hite
Publisher: Southern Music Company
Edition: B362
Etude Selector Video Performance Guide


Soprano Clarinets Selection 1

Etude Title: 40 Studies, No. 36
Page(s): 38-39
Key:
Tempo: Dotted Quarter Note = 60–68

Play from Beginning to and through the down beat of ms. 80.

Errata:
Errata: the grace notes in m. 2, m. 4, m. 6, m. 14, 16, etc. should be approached with a slur (i.e. do not articulate the first of the 16ths notes following the grace notes.)

Performance Guide:
This etude was originally a violin study, so your job is to mimic bow articulation with the “tongue”. Use this opportunity to refine a variety of articulation styles and to solidify good fundamentals: “top of the tip of the tongue to the bottom of the tip of the reed” and “Just talk on the reed.” The tongue motion should be consistent: the same part of the tongue should return to the same part of the reed with each tongue stroke. For any staccato marking on an eighth note (m. 1, 3, 4, 5, etc.), listen for space between the notes: Using the syllables, “doot”/“toot” or “deet”/”teet”, will help. The tongue should return to the reed to stop the vibration between notes. All 8th notes should have some lift/space to them, even when no staccato is present (m. 2, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12, etc.) For sixteenth notes without markings, hear the beginnings of notes clearly using a light tongue stroke (m. 14, 16, 18, 23, 24, etc.) Use a ‘tee” or ‘tu’ articulation stroke for the note starts while avoiding heaviness. Accents are always essential to the musical style, however, use faster, denser air for these rather than a heavier tongue stroke. For staccato markings on sixteenth notes underneath slurs, use a gentler tongue stroke. Using a “doo” or “dee” syllable will help. This gentler articulation style of m. 32 creates an effective contrast to the opening bouncy style. Avoid clipping slur endings in m. 35 - m. 40, m. 53 through 56, m. 71-72, etc. The marked sostenuto in m. 38 is a fine suggestion that can apply to all similar passagework.

Throughout the etude, be sure to hear each note of grace notes distinctively, and feel each note underneath your fingers. For trills, if adding 2 trills makes the resolution late, use 1 trill.
Trills should be to the note above in the key signature. Execute each sextuplet with rhythmic accuracy. It is helpful to use the right hand side trill keys to play trills in m. 26, 30, 51 and the 32nd note turns in m. 49. For the high d# in m. 72, the optimal fingering is LH thumb/register/2/3 and RH 3/Eb key.

David Hite suggests fastoso: Pompous. However, this is merely Hite’s suggestion; it was not included in Rose’s original edition. Whatever mood or character best helps you ‘feel’ the music, that is fine. Mr. Hite also provides other suggestions for contrasting musical character and for tempo flexibility. These are tasteful musical suggestions for observation. Be sure the opening dynamic is full enough to provide softer contrasts for the mp and p phrases but soft enough to enable fuller moments as well. M. 26 - 33 provide opportunity for musical contrast; consider using a sweeter, more singing and lyrical approach. Use the fermata at the end of m. 37 to regroup and take a replenishing breath.


Soprano Clarinets Selection 2

Etude Title: 40 Studies, No. 32
Page(s): 34
Key:
Tempo: Quarter Note = 48–58

Play from Beginning to and through the downbeat of ms. 49.

Errata:
Ms. 25 - the (mf )dynamic marking should be printed under the B on beat three, and not beat 1.

Ms. 12-the last grouping of 32nd notes should begin with a C-natural (some older book editions indicate a C#) - revised 7/15/2020

Performance Guide:
This is a wonderful opportunity to perform with heartfelt expression, using your most beautiful, singing sound with a wide range of dynamics and characters. Continually refine your sound to match your best tone quality in all registers and dynamic ranges. When possible, leave the right hand down or find effective resonance fingerings for throat tone notes (as in m. 11, 24, etc.) Take time for deep breaths throughout, constantly supporting the airstream for as smooth and connected phrases as possible. Effective phrasing is essential. Adhere to the shapes of lines, adding nuance where suggested by Mr. Hite’s musical markings. Note endings are important in preparing subsequent phrases. Create long, connected musical phrases, and using wind speed, and using wind speed, make each phrase’s shape, highpoint, tension, and release obvious. Prepare slowly, thinking the eighth note pulse, gradually increasing tempo to a quarter note feel (while still organizing time in 8th notes.) Though preparation with metronome is helpful for developing a constant sense of subdivided pulse, it is critical to learn to control the tempo without metronome. A musically satisfying performance will profit from a sense of rubato throughout.

The turn in m. 8 is on the upbeat of the last 8th note of the bar. In mm. 10 and 42, grace notes are played on the upbeat of the 3rd 8th note of the bar. In measures 12 and 44, subdivide carefully: don’t rush! There should be only two shakes, at most, on the trill in m. 12. Keep all articulated passages gentle: “doo” or “dee” for all staccatos under slurs, and gentle, clear “tee” or “too” for others.


Soprano Clarinets Selection 3

Etude Title: 32 Etudes, 24
Page(s): 69
Key:
Tempo: Quarter Note = 92–104

Play from Beginning to end.

Errata:
None at this time.

Performance Guide:
This etude was originally a violin study, so your job is to mimic energetic, controlled bow action and response with the “tongue”. Use this opportunity to solidify good fundamentals: “top of the tip of the tongue to the bottom of the tip of the reed” and “Just talk on the reed.” Tongue motion should be consistent: the same part of the tongue should return to the same part of the reed with each tongue stroke. Be careful to avoid ‘clipping’ two note slurred groupings. Instead, keep the air moving off the ends of the slurs, simply allowing the articulation of the subsequent note to finish slurs. Keep notes under slurs evenly spaced, avoiding compression or rushing of the notes. Hear the beginnings of each note clearly, using a light tongue stroke, typically ‘tee” or ‘tu’, though ‘dee’ or ‘du’ may be best for some. Avoid heaviness or ‘peckiness’ in playing the staccato sixteenth notes. It would be easy to ‘overarticulate’ these notes, yet instead they should be clear, light, and bouncy: ‘teet’ or ‘toot’ or ‘deet’ or ‘doot’.

Take breaths where indicated, though depending on your lung capacity, you may not need all of them. Keep embouchure pressure around the mouthpiece consistently firm, particularly in the larger leaps. Fast wind should always be present behind the tongue so that the tongue can move as minimally as possible.

For fingerings: consider using the ‘1 and 1” fingering for Bb in m. 18, 26, 27, and 28. For Gb in m. 19, 20, and beat 2 of 24, you will need to ‘flop’ the fingering between your RH index finger and middle finger. In m. 19, 20, 23, and 24, be sure to play the C with your left hand pinky. Again, pay careful attention to optimal hand position, rounded, curved fingers, especially index and pinky fingers.


Low Clarinets

Book Title: Artistic Studies, Book 1 - From the French School
Editor: David Hite
Publisher: Southern Music Company
Edition: B362
Etude Selector Video Performance Guide


Low Clarinets Selection 1

Etude Title: 32 Etudes, 10
Page(s): 56
Key:
Tempo: Quarter note 84–96

Play from Beginning to end.

Errata:
Contra bass clarinets play from the second beat of measure 40 to the end of measure 42 one octave lower

Performance Guide:
This etude is features mixed articulation challenges and control of staccato throughout . Using a clipped return tongue technique with a “tut, or cut” syllable will enhance the clarity of articulation particularly in bars 4, 13, 14 and 37. The middle cantabile section allows the player to produce a “singing” tone quality with an open throat position, warm air supply and rhythmically controlled finger motion. Bars 41 and 42 should begin with a short return tongue stroke and gradually lengthen to a longer stroke to consistently produce the altissimo f.


Low Clarinets Selection 2

Etude Title: 40 Studies, No. 32
Page(s): 34
Key: E Minor
Tempo: Eighth Note = 104–116

Play from Beginning to downbeat of ms. 49.

Errata:
M. 12 The last grouping of 32nd notes should begin with a C natural (some older printings indicate a C#).

M. 25- The (mf) dynamic marking should be printed under the B on beat three and not on beat one. Revised 7/15/2020

Performance Guide:
This beautiful lyrical etude has multiple rhythmic and phrasing challenges throughout. The trills , turns and grace note patterns should be used early in the learning process -including those in bars 8, 10, 12, 23, and 42. Treat the trill in measure 12 as a single upper neighbor and play the beautiful melismatic run that follows with some flexibility. Slow metronome subdivided eighth note tempos are highly recommended . If this etude is performed at too slow a subdivided tempo, correct breathing and phrasing become challenging.


Low Clarinets Selection 3

Etude Title: 32 Etudes, 15
Page(s): 60-61
Key:
Tempo: Quarter Note = 60–72

Play from Beginning to end.

Errata:
None at this time.

Performance Guide:
The goal in this etude is to produce the smooth, clear, co-ordinated intervals that continuously connect to each other. The first grace not in measure one is the correct way to play all of the following grace notes and the “trills” in measures 32 and 34. The addendum at the bottom of page 60 clearly states this fact also. When playing these grace notes, the performer should not change the rhythmic or syllabic order of the printed sixteenth notes. Play the grace notes just slightly before the second beat in those measures for best results. The grace note C sharp (written with a “trill”indication but played as a single grace note) can be done using the bottom two right upper side keys while holding down the b fingering, or lifting the left thumb briefly off the octave key. The normal high C sharp fingering can also be used, although it is slow to respond when descending back to the high b.


Oboe and English Horn

Book Title: Selected Studies for Oboe
Editor: H. Voxman
Publisher: Rubank
Edition: No. 107 HLO4470710
Etude Selector Video Performance Guide


Oboe and English Horn Selection 1

Etude Title: Allegro furioso
Page(s): 9
Key: D Minor
Tempo: Quarter Note = 112–126- (Revised 7/16/2020)

Play from Beginning to end.

Errata:
None

Performance Guide:
This etude is full of fast moving energy. It is not just notes that move fast. It is intense energy with lots of musical shaping. Follow the “landscape” or direction of the notes to create musical and dynamic shaping. The accents need to be more lyrical (a push with the air pressure) rather than percussive (a heavy/hard articulation). I would suggest using left F as much as possible. Do not get too short or clipped on the staccato notes. They should be light and round like pizzicato string ( plucking the strings of a stringed instrument with the finger ). M. 26 will require the use of forked F to left G# or left F to right G#. You will need to “set up” places to breathe, I would suggest you not breathe on a bar line. Breathe on a tie as in mm. 5, 15, and 24. Breathe after the first note of a measure or count when that note finishes the previous run such as mm. 9, 10, 17, 19, 22 and/or 27. You also might need to blow air out to relieve pressure in one measure and breathe in in the next measure such as mm. 9-10. When and where to breathe is up to the individual player. The breaths simply need to be placed musically. Look past the notes to find the music. The end product must be musically convincing as well as technically impressive.


Oboe and English Horn Selection 2

Etude Title: Andantino (in 6)
Page(s): 32
Key: F# Minor
Tempo: Eighth Note = 72–80

Play from Beginning to end.

Errata:
M. 17 - The G# (4th note/count 5) should be an A to form an A Major arpeggio. (posted 6/19)
M. 46 - the first two notes should be dotted eighths (not dotted sixteenths). (posted 6/19)
M. 48 - the next to the last note should be B natural. (posted 6/19)

Performance Guide:
This etude is hauntingly beautiful. It should feel wistful and poignant.The first challenge is to make sure you double all of the note and rest values. When doubling the counts on dotted notes, remove the dot, double the note and reapply the dot. When trilling, lean into the front of the trill to add some musical shaping. The trill in m. 11 is G# to A. Finger G# on the right and trill the third finger of the left hand. The F# to G# trill in m. 41 is easily done by holding the G# key down with the F# and trilling the F# key. Make sure the key and accidentals are applied to the grace notes. Release notes that are followed by a rest on the rest. The accents need to be lyrical (a push with the air pressure) rather than percussive (a heavy/hard articulation). Voicing ( singing high or low internally and rolling in or out with the embouchure depending on the register ) is vitally important for not only response but tuning. Follow the “landscape” or direction of the notes to create musical and dynamic shaping. M. 37 will have a subtle ritard to set up a breath to start the “a tempo”. When and where to breathe is up to the individual player. The breaths simply need to be placed musically. The end product must be musically convincing as well as technically impressive.


Oboe and English Horn Selection 3

Etude Title: Poco allegratto (in 1)
Page(s): 44
Key: Db Major
Tempo: Dotted Half Note = 60–66

Play from Beginning to end.

Errata:
None

Performance Guide:
This etude is a bit of a roller coaster ride. It is all about being fun and creative with unexpected jumps and curves. It is a study in mapping out which F fingering to use where. The key signature of D-flat major is going to require the use of forked F. Forked F is always option 3 of our three F fingerings unless it becomes option 1 out of necessity. Analyze by measure which F fingering fits best. M. 56 presents a unique choice of finger pattern. For the last 3 notes of m. 56 I would suggest this finger pattern: E-natural to left F to right E-flat/switch to left E-flat to D-flat in m. 57. Use the right A-flat key for the high F in mm. 3 and 49. Follow the “landscape” or direction of the notes to create musical and dynamic shaping. Blow out and breathe in during the rests in mm. 16, 34, and 46 in order to relieve built up pressure. If more breaths are needed, find places to breathe that do not interrupt the flow of the music. The accents need to be more lyrical (a push with the air pressure) rather than percussive (a heavy/hard articulation). The staccato notes should be light and round like pizzicato string ( plucking the strings of a stringed instrument with the finger ). They will not be short and clipped. The end product must be musically convincing as well as technically impressive.


Bassoon

Book Title: Concert Studies, Opus 26, Volume I
Editor: Milde, Edited by Kovar
Publisher: International Music Company
Edition: No. 467
Etude Selector Video Performance Guide


Bassoon Selection 1

Etude Title: No. 2
Page(s): 4-5
Key: a minor
Tempo: Meno: Quarter Note = 52–60; Tempo 1: Quarter Note = 60-68

Play from Beginning through m. 12 to cut to m. 25 and play to end.

Errata:
Errata:
m. 1-the last note of the third set of 32nd notes-should be a D natural-(revised 8/6/2020)
in m. 9, beat 4, the upper note of the mordent should be an A natural, and in m. 10, beat 4, the upper note of the mordent should be a D natural. In m. 25, beat 2, the last thirty-second note should be an A natural, and in m. 26, beat 2, the last thirty-second note should also be an A natural. In m. 34, beat 4 just before the bass clef returns, the notes in the scale should be G natural and F natural. (Revised 7-26-2020)

Performance Guide:
Number your measures carefully, as there are partial measures across some lines. Begin your practice with your metronome set in eighth notes in order to establish the correct relationship between the eighth note and four thirty-second notes, which is the rhythmic motive for much of the piece. Although not marked throughout, maintain the style of a lift on the eighth note after the four thirty-seconds. At the Meno, perform the mordent as a triplet in the space of the sixteenth. You will need to open your embouchure and throat for the lower notes of the large down slurs, but try to avoid playing the low notes too loudly. Similar dynamics to the beginning may be added to mm. 28-33, generally following the contour of the pitches. If needed, you may add a slur in m. 34 on the first two notes of the tenor clef, from the G-sharp to the A.
Fingerings: To facilitate the slur in m. 7 from the high A to the following D-sharp, remain on the C-sharp key for the D-sharp. In m. 8, use the high F-sharp fingering with the right pinky on the F key rather than the right thumb on the B-flat key since the preceding half-hole F-sharp involves your right thumb. In m. 10, the half-hole G-sharp after the first mordent is a challenging slur. Even though it is not a flick note, tapping the A flick key on the G-sharp will help. 
(Revised 7-26-2020)


Bassoon Selection 2

Etude Title: No. 17
Page(s): 32-33
Key: c minor
Tempo: Quarter Note = 58–66

Play from beginning through low G in m. 11 to cut to fermata G in ms. 34 and play through first note of m. 43.

Errata:
In m. 9, the grace note at the end of the measure should be a B-flat (revised 8/6/2020)
Move the tempo in m. 39 to the last four thirty-seconds of m. 38 to match m. 4.
In m. 7, slur the two grace notes into the downbeat of the following high G.

Performance Guide:
This beautiful etude gives you the opportunity to express yourself with a full range of dynamics and to demonstrate your control by tapering notes at the ends of phrases. It is helpful to practice long tones daily on all of the final notes of phrases. Although the time signature is 3/2, it will be easier to think in quarter notes (six to the measure) in order to play the different types of divisions of the beat accurately, with the correct proportions of eighth notes, sixteenth notes, and thirty-second notes. Remember that the sixteenth note quintuplet in mm. 2 and 36 takes the same amount of time as four sixteenth notes and that the thirty-second note triplets in mm. 4 and 38 take the same amount of time as two thirty-second notes. Be sure that the rhythm is still clear when adding rubato.
Fingerings: In mm. 6 and 40, use the right thumb A-flat key (below G-flat key) for the low A-flat for a smoother approach from the low F. If the E-flat in m. 41 after the second high G doesn’t speak easily, be sure that you are closing your half hole on time and flick the C-sharp key on the E-flat. To keep the final C from falling as you taper it, you may hold down the C flick key and possibly add the low D key as well.


Bassoon Selection 3

Etude Title: No. 25
Page(s): 48-49
Key: c# minor
Tempo: Dotted Half Note = 50–64

Play from Beginning through m. 53 to cut to m. 85 (rest on beat 1) and play to downbeat of m. 112.

Errata:
None at this time.

Performance Guide:
Etude #25 in C-sharp minor focuses on tonguing and proper half hole and flicking technique. Start by learning your C-sharp and G-sharp melodic minor scales so that you think in the language of sharps. Begin your practice with your metronome set to quarter notes at a slow tempo that allows you to play cleanly, then gradually speed up to feel it in one dotted half per measure. In scale passages remember to adjust your half holes for adjacent F-sharp and G-sharp, using a larger opening for F-sharp and smaller opening for G-sharp, and flick as many A-naturals as possible, taking care to close your half hole completely to avoid distortion. For the lengthier tongued passages, first practice your tonguing on a repeated note with the dynamic changes that are called for before adding the actual notes. Remember to maintain constant breath support and to minimize any jaw motion.
In measures that start with a quarter note that is not marked staccato, you may choose to make a slight space before the following eighths, but keep your style consistent. In mm. 13, 25 and 105 you may start the piano dynamic on the downbeat. A small ritardando would be appropriate in ms. 111 for a more definitive ending.
Fingerings: The G-sharp above the staff generally speaks better with your whisper key down and a small half hole. Lift your right pointer on the downbeat E of m. 19 to facilitate the slur. For the trill in m. 51, finger the D-sharp and trill your left middle finger. In mm. 49 and 103, leave the whisper key as early as you can to reach the low note keys on time with your left thumb.


Contra-Bassoon

Book Title: Concert Studies, Opus 26, Volume I
Editor: Milde, Edited by Kovar
Publisher: International Music Company
Edition: No. 467
Etude Selector Video Performance Guide


Contra-Bassoon Selection 1

Etude Title: No. 2
Page(s): 4-5
Key:
Tempo: Meno: Quarter Note = 44–52; M. 25 Tempo 1: Quarter Note = 52-64

Play from M. 9 to M. 12; cut to M. 25 and play through the downbeat of downbeat of M. 34.

Errata:
Errata: in m. 9, beat 4, the upper note of the mordent should be an A natural, and in m. 10,
beat 4, the upper note of the mordent should be a D natural. In m. 25, beat 2, the last thirty-
second note should be an A natural, and in m. 26, beat 2, the last thirty-second note should also
be an A natural. (revised 8/6/2020)

Performance Guide:
Number your measures carefully, as there are partial measures across some lines. Begin your practice with your metronome set in eighth notes in order to establish the correct relationship between the eighth note and four thirty-second notes, which is the rhythmic motive for much of the piece.  Although not marked throughout, maintain the style of a lift on the eighth note after the four thirty-seconds. At the Meno, perform the mordent as a triplet in the space of the sixteenth. You will need to open your embouchure and throat for the lower notes of the large down slurs, but try to avoid playing the low notes too loudly. Similar dynamics to the beginning may be added to mm. 28-33, generally following the contour of the pitches.
Fingerings for the highest notes may vary by instrument, but the following fingerings work well for
many contra bassoons. Try for high A: XXX C octave & C-sharp/XXOF; for high G-sharp try: OXX
C octave & C-sharp/OOO; for high G: OXX C octave/OOO; and high F-sharp: OXX C octave/XOO.
(revised 8/6/2020)


Saxophones

Book Title: 48 Famous Studies for Oboe or Saxophone
Editor: W. Ferling, Revised by Andraud
Publisher: Southern Music Company
Edition: B103
Etude Selector Video Performance Guide


Saxophones Selection 1

Etude Title: No. 6
Page(s): 3
Key:
Tempo: Dotted Quarter Note = 72–84

Play from Beginning to end.

Errata:
None at this time.

Performance Guide:
This is a elegant and flowing technical etude with a dramatic character change in the middle of the piece. Most of the technique should be very straightforward since it is largely composed of scales, arpeggios, and broken arpeggios. However, a careful consideration should be given to the choice of Bb/A# fingerings. Try both the bis and side Bb fingerings, make a conscious decision, and practice with the same fingerings every time. I recommend side Bb for steps (scales) and bis Bb for skips (arpeggios). Even though there is only one dynamic indication in the beginning of the etude, performers should apply more dynamic gestures and contrasts in order to make it expressive and exciting. One simple way to accomplish this is by following the melodic contour with dynamics but be tasteful since it can be nauseating if overdone.

Start practicing with a slow 8th note pulse at 60bpm or slower and gradually speed up to 152 then switch to a dotted quarter note pulse at 50 and speed up gradually to a desired tempo. It is imperative that you speed up the tempo only once you can play without any mistakes.


Saxophones Selection 2

Etude Title: No. 33
Page(s): 17
Key:
Tempo: Eighth Note = 76–88

Play from Beginning to end.

Errata:
None at this time.

Performance Guide:
This is a beautiful and lyrical etude that offers many opportunities to showcase expressive and musical playing. One of the big challenges of this etude is to keep a steady pulse while switching between different subdivisions as well as adding ornamental figures. I recommend practicing with appropriate subdivisions on a metronome as much as possible to make sure that the longer notes are not compressed or elongated. It is also a good idea to sing the melody while conducting. There are a wide variety of ornamentations including, trills, grace notes, and turns. Practice without the ornaments before adding them to ensure that the rhythm is not compromised. Strive to be lyrical and tasteful with ornamented notes.

Pay attention to the dynamic gestures and the use of vibrato in order to create a lyrical phrasing with expressions. Rather than restarting the vibrato on every note, continue the vibrato as if playing one long note. I recommend using vibrato on notes longer than a 16th note.


Saxophones Selection 3

Etude Title: No. 14
Page(s): 7
Key:
Tempo: Quarter Note = 108–120

Play from Beginning to end.

Errata:
None at this time.

Performance Guide:
This is a lighthearted and cheerful technical etude. The playful spirit is created by the bouncy articulations and generally, the end of slurs followed by staccatos needs to be released with a light lift except when the staccato is on a beat (mm. 7, 10, 11, 12, 13, and 27). One of the biggest challenges of this selection is the large jumps between registers in mm. 10, 11, 12, and 29. Make sure you do not tense up or over-relax your embouchure to play the low notes. I recommend playing them in the same register a few times to see how easy it feels and sounds without the octave jumps then play as written while keeping the same ease of playing from before.

Start practicing slowly with a quarter note pulse on the metronome and gradually speed up. Once the performance tempo is reached, switch to a half note pulse. This will make the etude flow better with much more playfulness.


Cornet/Trumpet

Book Title: Selected Studies
Editor: H. Voxman
Publisher: Rubank / Hal Leonard
Edition: No. 108 HLO4470680
Etude Selector Video Performance Guide


Cornet/Trumpet Selection 1

Etude Title: D Major - Con fuoco
Page(s): 20-21
Key: D Major
Tempo: Eighth Note = 140–152

Play from Beginning to end.

Errata:
No errata.

Performance Guide:
This étude by Böhme should be performed in a exciting, fiery style using a firm articulation while avoiding playing the notes too short. In bars 21, 22, 29, and 30 make sure to observe the diminuendo after the first beat of each bar, avoiding forcing out the high B. The dotted sixteenth and thirty-second note passages aren’t to be played with much separation, playing these in a more melodic, linear way while still keeping the same firmness in the articulation. Avoid playing the thirty-second notes too soon, making it sound like a triple feel. Instead place the thirty-seconds as close to the following dotted sixteenths as possible without changing the rhythm. Fingerings in measures 1, 39, and 55 can be quite awkward. Practice these passages slowly at first. Also, practice playing only the first 5 notes several times before putting it back into context. This forked fingering can be very difficult but will get easier with consistent practice.


Cornet/Trumpet Selection 2

Etude Title: F Major - Adagio cantabile
Page(s): 8
Key: F Major
Tempo: Eighth note 132–144

Play from Beginning to downbeat of m. 39.

Errata:
In measure 31, Starting on beat 4, the D should be changed to D natural, voiding the D-flat which occurs earlier in the measure.
In the cadenza (measure 38) the accidentals do not carry through the measure, they only effect the note they are adjacent to.

Performance Guide:
This étude by Duhem should be performed in a very singing style with much expression. The sostenuto marking at the beginning means to play each note full value taking extra care to connect one note to the next. Make sure to show the variations in tempi, including each return to the original tempo, this will help in being fully expressive. Also, work to develop the control necessary to play completely legato in the extreme dynamic markings. The ornaments should all occur before the beat and be played quickly while remaining elegant and clear. Measure 35 is written in a quasi cadenza manner giving you the freedom to move the tempo as you see fit. Measure 38 is a cadenza. All note values in this measure are suggested and are not to be played exactly in tempo. The goal is to be able to create as much tension and release as possible to enhance the drama in the resolution of the final cadence.


Cornet/Trumpet Selection 3

Etude Title: Bb Major - Allegro marziale
Page(s): 16-17
Key: Bb Major
Tempo: Quarter note 96–104

Play from Beginning to Ms. 52 first note.

Errata:
In measures 8, 24, and 26, the fortissimos should be on the 4th beat of the measure,
m. 32 beat 4 add pianissimo (so it's a beat earlier than printed)
m. 35 the written D sixteenth note should be written C.
m. 36 add decrescendo to beats 3 and 4

Performance Guide:
This étude by Gatti should be performed in a march style using a marked articulation with extra care being given to emphasizing the extreme contrast in dynamics. This extreme, while very difficult at first, will help you to develop control of your airstream making you a much more mature musician. The squillante marking means to play with a clear, brilliant, and ringing sound, like the striking of a bell. Also, make note that while all of the triplets are marked staccato in this étude, the dotted eighths and sixteenths are not. This is intentional. Do not play the dotted eighth notes short, if Gatti had wanted this he would not have written the rhythm as eighth, sixteenth rest, sixteenth note later in this étude after we conclude.


F Horn

Book Title: 335 Selected Melodious, Progressive, and Technical Studies - Book 1
Editor: Pottag / Andraud
Publisher: Southern Music Company
Edition: B134
Etude Selector Video Performance Guide


F Horn Selection 1

Etude Title: No. 77
Page(s): 96
Key:
Tempo: Half Note = 104–124

Play from Beginning to end.

Errata:

m. 79 - play high D-flat above high C (finger either T23 or 12)
m. 80-play all upper written notes
m. 81- play large notes: A-flat, D, G, and B (Note: the bass clef is "old notation"-written one octave lower than performed)

Performance Guide:
This etude allows the performer to reveal their technical brilliance though clean articulation, steady rhythms and a consistent tone quality throughout the range of the instrument. Absolute strict rhythm within one tempo is required, the syncopation should be exact (not rushed), rests must be precise in timing, m 28-64 all articulations and intervals are to be performed at tempo (no accel. or rit.). The accents should be dry with slight decay m. 35, etc (the low C’s are not the focal point of this section). I suggest breaking the slur after the downbeat C in measure 62 for a breath. Observe exact timing following the fermata in m. 64.


F Horn Selection 2

Etude Title: Romanze
Page(s): 49 (bottom)
Key: G Major (Revised 7/14)
Tempo: Quarter note 56–68

Play from Beginning to end.

Errata:
Play as written. Do not transpose to Eb Horn. (Posted 7/14)

Performance Guide:
This etude should be performed in a beautiful cantabile style. Think of it as though you were singing and use the horn as your voice. Some rubato is appropriate. The trills in measures 9 and 16 are whole step trills and must be performed as “lip trills”.
Notes:
1. Breathe after the downbeat in measure 3 and no breath in measure 4
2. Break the slur and breathe after downbeat in measure 5.
3. Breath after beat 3 in measure 6 and no breath in measure 7.
4. Break the slur and breathe after the downbeat in measure 13.
5. Breath after beat 3 in measure 14.
6. Break the slur/tie and breathe after beat 1 in measure 23.


F Horn Selection 3

Etude Title: No. 99
Page(s): 114-115
Key: G Major
Tempo: Quarter note 96–112

Play from Ms.19 to end.

Errata:
None (Revised 7/14)

Performance Guide:
Begin the etude in m. 19 at the "Un poco piu lento" at a tempo of quarter note = 76-84. Performers are encouraged to play boldly and enjoy the dynamic and expressive nuances in this caprice. Creating a sense of flow requires careful attention to efficiency and breathing. Singing will aid in many regards. Care must be taken in m. 24 to make the turn a beautiful and natural embellishment of the line.

At m. 27, the Tempo 1, the quarter note = 96-112. The sixteenth notes should be approached with lightness and without over-tonguing the staccato notes. Mm. 34-44 must not slow down, though it is appropriate to perform a slight ritard before the fermata in m. 45 before returning to the Tempo 1 in m. 46. The portato notes in m. 60 and m. 64 should not be over-tongued. A slight ritard might be permitted in the last three measures to bring a sense of finality.


Tenor Trombone

Book Title: Selected Studies
Editor: H. Voxman
Publisher: Rubank / Hal Leonard
Edition: No. 159 HLO4470720
Etude Selector Video Performance Guide


Tenor Trombone Selection 1

Etude Title: Eb Major - Marcia
Page(s): 7
Key: Eb Major
Tempo: Quarter Note = 88–96

Play from Beginning to end.

Errata:
None

Performance Guide:
The Belcke etude in Eb Major offers the trombonist an opportunity to display agile technique in a non-bombastic style. While the marking “Marcia” implies both a march tempo and style, the actual inflections suggest a playful, slightly detached lyricism. The piece is dominated by staccato and accent markings but should not be played so short that those markings interfere with the linear flow of the tuneful phrases. Don’t be so caught up in the flashy potential of the etude that you lose focus on melody.

The piece requires careful attention to weight differential between the weighted, emphasized accents and the lighter, crisper staccato markings. Make the difference clear, but never overdone to the point of caricature.

Perform the grace notes throughout this etude as a modern interpretation: a very short note before the beat of the main note. Use a natural slur, when possible, from the grace note to the main note. Make sure the grace notes don’t distort the overall rhythm or lose quality of tone because of their quickness.

Give careful attention to clarity of articulation. The tongued articulation should be well-matched throughout the piece in all registers – both in diatonic and arpeggio lines. Evenness is a sign that you control both the style and your personal technique. It’s one of the qualities of a fine player. As with all fast technique, work it as slow as you need to for controlling all aspects of your technique. The etude should sound fun to play and it should also be fun for the listener.

Play all the lower trigger register octaves suggested throughout the piece.

The first three lines are an excellent example of subtle style / mood changes in the piece – an opening march style (not without shape), a more majestic forte approach (still with weight differential), and a more lyrical, lighter version in the dolce section.

The few dynamics listed are quite important, however, the entire piece offers opportunity for phrase shaping.

*An exact performance tempo is less important than capturing the appropriate style and musical ideas of the piece, demonstrating stable rhythmic control (metronome!), and controlling your personal trombone skills throughout.

Friedrich August Belcke (1795–1874) was a celebrated trombonist in Berlin in the 19th century.


Tenor Trombone Selection 2

Etude Title: G Minor - Lento
Page(s): 4
Key: G Minor
Tempo: Quarter note 60–76

Play from Beginning to end.

Errata:
None at this time.

Performance Guide:
Vladislav Blazhevich (1881-1942) was Russia’s greatest 20th century trombone pedagogue (Moscow Conservatory) and was also an accomplished composer. That combination of talents created some of the most beautiful, engaging study materials for low brass.

The G Minor etude is one of Blazhevich’s most singing, dramatic melodies. Blazhevich doesn’t settle for simple, sweet lyricism in his dolce (sweet), sostenuto (sustained) style. There’s room for drama as well as tenderness in this piece. Rubato is also appropriate for much of the piece – assuming it remains tasteful and doesn’t become overdone to the point of distraction or rhythmic distortion.

The sostenuto style implies that all notes are connected (without stylistic lifts) regardless of the articulation. In lyrical playing the difference between tongued and slurred articulation is subtle and not highly contrasted. Make the notes occupy that full time value within the tempo you choose. You want the piece to move forward without being dreary, but not ever feel rushed – even in the rubato. Make your expressiveness seem natural and spontaneous, not contrived.

Every phrase has shape, even when there are no crescendos and decrescendos. Make sure moving eighth notes lead.

Work carefully to make sure that all slurs sound the same – regardless of the kind of slur they are on trombone. Evenness of articulation is always a hallmark of a fine player.

Also work for evenness of tone color in all registers. Don’t allow the upper register in this etude become strident.


Tenor Trombone Selection 3

Etude Title: Bb Minor - Allegretto
Page(s): 25
Key: Bb Minor
Tempo: Quarter Note = 88–98

Play from Beginning to end.

Errata:
None

Performance Guide:
Böhme’s Bb minor etude has been a favorite tenor trombone and euphonium All-State etude for half a century. The quick, light (legére), crisp style should be agile and fun! Teach your body the comfort and effortless you desire in performance by starting your preparation at half tempo or less!

As always with staccato don’t let the shortest destroy the resonance of tone. Clarity of start is a primary consideration in this etude. Try to systematically move your tempo forward without diminishing the quality of your work. Never let a chosen tempo make you sound like a worse player. Move your effortlessness and quality of performance forward without sacrificing either.

Don’t allow the soft playing – piano and pianissimo – to become insecure, airy, and non-resonant.

Because of the key, there is a lot of opportunity for use of alternate positions to facilitate velocity and effortlessness. Use adjacent (or closest) positions when possible.

For example:
Bb in 5th for measures 22, 25, & 27;
Low C in 6th for measures 24-27

Don’t allow legato slurs in this piece to overly approach glissando. For this style it would sound very much out of character.


Bass Trombone

Book Title: 70 Studies, Vol. I
Editor: Blazhevich
Publisher: Robert King Music
Edition: No. 273 AL 28 596
Etude Selector Video Performance Guide


Bass Trombone Selection 1

Etude Title: No. 40
Page(s): 48-49
Key:
Tempo: Quarter Note = 74–84

Play from Beginning to end.

Errata:
None

Performance Guide:
There are several things that pretty much every Blazhevich etude has in common with every other Blazhevich etude - 1) repeating rhythmic patterns, 2) repeating harmonic patterns, 3) diminished 7th chords, 4) a repeat back to the beginning melodic idea and 5) no dynamic markings. This is a typical Blazhevich etude. You will need to use a metronome and start at a tempo that will allow you to play continuously without stumbling. As you go faster make sure that your slide and tongue are coordinated for a clean articulation and fat tone. Short and pecky articulation will not work on this etude even when you go faster. A standard rule on bass trombone is “the lower it goes, the louder you get”. This will work well when playing scalar runs that go into the pedal range. It will also be important to allow the tongue to have a lower strike point as you play lower. As you work through learning the notes, listen to the melodic lines and find places to add your own crescendos and decrescendos. Mark them in lightly with a pencil just in case you hear things differently laster on. Using the Gb valve by itself will make performing this etude much easier.


Bass Trombone Selection 2

Etude Title: No. 34
Page(s): 36-37
Key:
Tempo: Dotted Quarter Note = 60–68

Play from Beginning to end.

Errata:
m. 51 - slur the triplet notes. Start a new slur on the dotted 1/8 note that only slurs the dotted 1/8 note to the 1/16 note.

Performance Guide:
There are several things that pretty much every Blazhevich etude has in common with every other Blazhevich etude - 1) repeating rhythmic patterns, 2) repeating harmonic patterns, 3) diminished 7th chords, 4) a repeat back to the beginning melodic idea and 5) no dynamic markings. This is a typical Blazhevich etude. The time signature switches between 9/8 and 3/4. This etude is a very elegant and romantic piece of music. There are rhythmic challenges such as the dotted eighth-sixteenth notes following triplets (mm. 5, 8, etc.), the duple feel (mm. 9 & 10, etc.), eighth-dotted eighth-sixteenth notes (mm. 30, 32, 33, 34). The are articulation challenges of slurred notes, tenuto notes and non marked notes. There are breathing challenges with slurs in places that should not be broken to catch a breath. There are many places in the etude for musical expression such as doing an accelerando while doing a crescendo and doing a ritardando while doing a decrescendo. This especially applies to the section of mm. 46 - 59. Use of a vibrato is highly recommended in appropriate places.


Bass Trombone Selection 3

Etude Title: No. 11
Page(s): 10
Key:
Tempo: Quarter Note = 96–106

Play from Beginning to end.

Errata:
Add slur from last note of 15 (A) to the first note of 16 (A#)

Performance Guide:
There are several things that pretty much every Blazhevich etude has in common with every other Blazhevich etude - 1) repeating rhythmic patterns, 2) repeating harmonic patterns, 3) diminished 7th chords, 4) a repeat back to the beginning melodic idea and 5) no dynamic markings. This is a typical Blazhevich etude. This etude should be thought of aa a light, delicate and fun etude. Yes, bass trombones can play light and delicate!!!! The interpretation should be separated and bouncy - not short. Care should be taken in tuning all of the half steps whether they are in pairs or in a chromatic run. Evenness of sound will also be very important especially in the wide interval skips. Listen for and identify the patterns of notes that help to make up the melodic lines. Those patterns will help to give the melodic lines musical direction and make preparing the etude much easier. Observe the dynamic direction that is written in between mm. 14 - 27.


Euphonium

Book Title: Selected Studies
Editor: H. Voxman
Publisher: Rubank / Hal Leonard
Edition: No. 160 HLO4470730
Etude Selector Video Performance Guide


Euphonium Selection 1

Etude Title: C Major - Allegro giusto
Page(s): 18-19
Key: C Major
Tempo: Quarter Note = 92–120

Play from Beginning to end.

Errata:
The downbeat of m. 11 should be a D (as in m.44)

Performance Guide:
This etude presents the challenge of tonguing and slurring cleanly and evenly through swiftly moving scales and arpeggios. Fingers need to be precise while the performer must think of “blowing through” with the air. Performers may choose to double tongue, especially some of the longer passages like mm.9-10 and mm.42-43, but single tonguing should be possible even at the upper end of the tempo range. The descending lines in m.11 and m.44 pose a special challenge for keeping evenness through the 16th notes, and “blowing through” will again be the key. The etude requires good intonation in the key of C major. Usually the C above the staff tends to be flat, the Gs both in the staff and above the staff tend to be sharp (with third valve as a useful alternate fingering), and the C in the staff may sometimes be flat on a four-valve instrument (and always very sharp on a three-valve instrument).


Euphonium Selection 2

Etude Title: C Minor - Andante
Page(s): 8
Key: C Minor
Tempo: Quarter note 64–76

Play from Beginning to end.

Errata:
None at this time.

Performance Guide:
Centering pitches between large intervallic leaps is a crucial element of this etude. The section from m.9 through m.16 is especially tricky in this regard, and the performer must be accurate in hearing the pitches mentally in order not to accidentally interchange first-valve Cs and E-flats or first and second-valve Gs, Ds, and B-naturals—a very easy trap to fall into. Throughout this same section it is important to pay attention to the tenuto versus staccato markings. The etude provides an opportunity not only to show accuracy in pitches and note markings, but even more importantly a singing, expressive, and dramatic character. Alternate fingerings will come in handy with the trills in m.27 (using first and second valves for D) and m.29 (using third valve for G).


Euphonium Selection 3

Etude Title: E Minor - Maestoso
Page(s): 29
Key: E Minor
Tempo: Half note 88–108

Play from Beginning to end with repeat.

Errata:
None

Performance Guide:
This etude puts a student’s dynamic range on display, as well as the ability to switch suddenly between dynamic extremes. Precise and snappy dotted rhythms, in contrast to long and even quarter note triplets, is another crucial element. It is important to keep a consistent tempo throughout the etude, so the performer will need to give careful consideration to the opening tempo since the opening feels much slower than the “scherzando con grazia” section and other parts with eighth-note triplets. The eighth-note triplets present a challenge in terms of achieving a clean, crisp quality and also getting good, centered pitch and tone on each note. It is helpful to think of planting the first note of the triplet solidly (and this is especially important in establishing the changes in tonality between E major and E minor), and also to blow through the triplet with energized air in order to dig out the middle note. (It is especially helpful to think of the energy of the air at the very soft dynamics.) Single-tonguing the triplets should be possible throughout the recommended tempo range, although triple tonguing may be an easier option for some at the upper end of the tempo range. Finally, the descending lines with dotted rhythms in mm. 44-45, 48-49, and 56-57 are a special challenge, requiring the performer to “blow through” the lines with good connection while being snappy and precise with the fingers.


Tuba

Book Title: 78 Studies
Editor: Grigoriev
Publisher: Robert King Music
Edition: No. 288 AL 28 611
Etude Selector Video Performance Guide


Tuba Selection 1

Etude Title: No. 26
Page(s): 20-21
Key:
Tempo: Quarter Note = 120–132

Play from Beginning to end.

Errata:
None at this time.

Performance Guide:
This etude is both melodic and very specifically stylistic and, if prepared appropriately, will help develop phrasing skills and stylistic interpretation not commonly found in young tuba players. Most non-pianists are unfamiliar with the Mazurka style, and it may be beneficial throughout your preparation to watch and/or listen to recordings of the many Mazurkas for solo piano by the Polish-French composer Frederic Chopin to help learn and master the style. The tempos chosen for this etude are toward the slower end of the wide range for the Mazurka, and keep in mind that it is probably appropriate for this audition process to use less rubato than is typical of solo piano recordings. At the same time, listen for the elegance of articulation exhibited by pianists, which may be especially important to emulate in the staccato articulations in mm 51-58.

To build the range, flexibility, and technique that will be necessary for this etude, it is highly recommended that you begin daily practice of two- or three-octave D major and B minor scales and arpeggios. Practice these patterns in both articulated and legato styles so that you are prepared for both the main melody and its con brio style and the middle passage’s long legato lines.


Tuba Selection 2

Etude Title: No. 18
Page(s): 13
Key:
Tempo: Eighth Note = 120–138

Play from Beginning to end.

Errata:
None at this time.

Performance Guide:
This etude could potentially be used as a primer for either of the technical selections, as it helps develop good legato across a wide register. Most students will find it beneficial to engage in regular scale and arpeggio work across the two-and-a-half-octave range from low E to B above the staff in addition to lip slur and long tone study throughout this register. Passages like mm. 9-16 may even be excellent “mini-etudes” to add to your daily practice and gauge your progress in developing strong phrasing and excellent legato in this range.
The piu mosso indication in m. 17 can be interpreted as either a slight increase in the tempo or a shift to a more fluid style (or a bit of both). Pay special attention to mm. 21-22 as this pattern will likely be the limiting factor on your tempo choice. Only when these two measures can be executed smoothly and fluidly with no bumps and no cheating with a tongue assist should you consider increasing your tempo. Similarly, the morendo indication in m. 45 means to gradually slow and soften to give the selection an elegant ending. Your limiting factor here will be how efficiently you can play the phrase while still ending your last note with beautiful sound and pitch. It is harder than you think and will take some practice!


Tuba Selection 3

Etude Title: No. 58
Page(s): 52
Key:
Tempo: Half Note = 80–96

Play from Beginning to end.

Errata:
None at this time.

Performance Guide:
This etude allows the performer to demonstrate the specific skill of beginning a phrase on an upbeat, which is particularly problematic for many tuba players (and especially in this register). Part of the issue is rhythmic, and you will need to be very careful to train your ear to hear these phrases in time. For most young musicians, the tendency will be to start the phrase a bit late and then rush through the following notes in order to “catch up” by the next downbeat. With nearly every phrase (and often every part of a phrase) in this etude starting off the beat, this error can compound into a frantic-sounding mess. Before trying to execute these patterns on the instrument, then, work on singing or clapping them with a metronome in order to train your ear to hear the passage “in time”.
Even if you are hearing and feeling a correct sense of pulse, overarticulation and overblowing in the low register can create delays in the sound which make your performance sound out of time. Work on initiating sound in the low register, beginning with low B-flat and working your way down to the low F and beyond. Practicing very soft and very short notes (think of the exercise “Soft Touch” from the Brass Gym book) to begin with will help you fight the tendency to create clearer sound and articulation with force. Once immediate vibration at the lips has been achieved, begin gradually increasing dynamic until a clear fortissimo and accented articulation can be achieved.


Percussion - Snare

Book Title: Advanced Snare Drum Studies
Editor: M. Peters
Publisher: Mitchell Peters
Edition: (NA)
Etude Selector Video Performance Guide


Percussion - Snare Selection 1

Etude Title: 4
Page(s): 8-9
Key:
Tempo: Quarter note 72–80

Play from Beginning to End.

Errata:
None at this time.

Performance Guide:
This challenging etude explores the full palette of concert snare drum idioms and will certainly test the player's abilities in their execution.

The quality of the flams and drags throughout the etude should be consistent. In the concert style, be careful not to play these flat. This consistency of quality is particularly important in mm. 31-End, where these ornaments are often embedded in a straight sixteenth-note context. The performer’s sticking choice will influence how successfully this passage flows and how consistent the ornaments sound, particularly in the challenging last measure. The alternation between ruffs and flams in mm. 35-36 is most tricky, and careful experimentation with sticking approaches will be critical. Care should also be given to distinguish between accented and non-accented ornaments.

I encourage concentrated work on roll quality for the long rolls in mm. 6, 22, and 26. These long rolls will expose the player’s ability to produce a consistent and rich sound. Please note that the rolls in mm. 9-10 are not tied to the subsequent notes, so a very subtle separation needs to be placed here. Likewise in ms. 12, the rolls of the quarter-note triplet should be very slightly separated. In each of these cases, the non-tied rolls should not end with a “clean” single-stroke articulation.

It is essential to master the full range of dynamics indicated in the etude, especially control and evenness in soft playing. Special attention should be given to mm. 23 and 30, which require not only dynamic control at “p” and “f” respectively, but also quick alternations between rapid triplets and 32nd notes.


Percussion - Keyboard (2 Mallet)

Book Title: Masterpieces for the Marimba
Editor: McMillan
Publisher: Warner Bros. Publications
Edition: PROBK 01202 0-7692-3374-0
Etude Selector Video Performance Guide


Percussion - Keyboard (2 Mallet) Selection 1

Etude Title: Sonata
Page(s): 20-21
Key: D Major
Tempo: Quarter Note = 110–118

Play from Beginning to end.

Errata:

Performance Guide:
This selection is a transcription of second movement from George Frideric Handel’s Violin Sonata No. 7 in D Major, Op. 1, no.13, HWV 371. By using this cataloging number, the player can locate recordings of this work performed in its original form. Study of such recordings is highly recommended: not only will they serve as a model for phrasing and interpretation, but it will also be an opportunity to hear wonderful performances of this music.

All quarter notes and larger are to be rolled. The player should also carefully observe the written roll indications for notes smaller than a quarter—they are indicated by a capital “R.”

Observing standard performance practice, trills (marked “tr” in mm. 3, 50, 76, and 77) should be performed as dyad rolls beginning on the diatonic pitch above the written pitch. The symbol in ms. 75 bt. 4 signifies an upper mordent and is a rapid alternation between the written pitch, diatonic pitch above it, and the written pitch again (E, F-sharp, E), beginning on the beat. In standard practice, the final “E” of the mordent would be sustained, but for clarity and because of the tempo of designated tempo, I recommend playing it as a single articulation.

This selection will truly test the player’s ability to achieve a smooth, relaxed technical approach around the keyboard. A critical factor in achieving a fluid execution will be choosing appropriate stickings. Players will be tempted to incorporate numerous double-stickings (two consecutive notes with the same hand) in the challenging arpeggiated passages. I recommend the player rely more on alternating stickings by default and explore mallet positioning and bar placement as a means of creating greater flow, even when this may result in a cross-sticking. While double-stickings will be necessary, try to keep them to a minimum. A thoughtful approach to bar placement will require the use of both the edges and middles (or more precisely, off centers) of the bars and careful planning of when to use each. If done correctly, the player’s technique will flow smoothly even in these difficult passages. If the player’s approach seems choppy and strained, then a better mallet positioning/bar placement strategy likely exists. Avoid the temptation to double stick unless absolutely necessary. Please note that the player is not bound by the printed stickings and in some cases better stickings exist.

Regarding the staccato indications: these should NOT be played as deadstrokes. At the player's discretion, these may be played by utilizing a slightly tighter grip on the mallet shaft and a “snappy” stroke that increases in velocity into the bar. The player may also play the staccato notes precisely in the center of the bar (as opposed to an off-center default position). Both these strategies can produce slightly more articulation, but the effect will be subtle; and especially at softer dynamics, the effect will be almost indistinguishable. Regardless, do not overdo it or you will risk creating a harsh sound.


Percussion - Keyboard (4 Mallet)

Book Title: Impressions on Wood
Editor: Julie Davila
Publisher: Row-Loff Productions
Edition: RLP-10052000
Etude Selector Video Performance Guide


Percussion - Keyboard (4 Mallet) Selection 1

Etude Title: Mystic Fire
Page(s): 40-43
Key: F Minor
Tempo: Quarter note 174–182

Play from Beginning to beat 1 of Ms. 60 beat 1 of Ms. 60 .

Errata:
None at this time.

Performance Guide:
Full tempo ranges:
Beginning to measure 17 – Quarter note = 174-182
Measure 22 through 38 – Quarter note = 144-152
Measure 40 through end — Dotted Quarter note = 116-120

As indicated above, this etude includes several tempo changes. Players may be inclined to make direct relationships between these changes (for instance, making the eighth notes in ms. 21 and triplet eighth notes in mm. 22 constant), but this is not correct. On the other hand, the eighth notes beginning in ms. 40 will be the same tempo as the eighth notes at the beginning. Regardless, each of these sections should be well-learned individually at their designated tempos so that the player will be able to naturally execute the tempo changes.

The tempo chosen at beginning should be determined by the player’s ability to execute mm. 18-19. These measures should stay in tempo and not be played slower, so the tempo within the designated range at which the player can execute these measures correctly should determine the tempo at the beginning.

This etude allows the player some latitude for musical expression, especially in mm. 22-39. Note two uncommon terms, which the composer defines in the glossary of her book: in ms. 27, “riservato” (“held back”); and in ms. 30, “riprendendo” (“return to original tempo”—in this case, to the tempo established in ms. 22). However, ritards and any rubato should be tasteful, musically appropriate, and lead naturally to the material that follows. Do not exaggerate them.


Percussion - Timpani

Book Title: The Solo Timpanist
Editor: Firth
Publisher: Carl Fischer
Edition: O4402 0-8258-0914-2
Etude Selector Video Performance Guide


Percussion - Timpani Selection 1

Etude Title: XV
Page(s): 27
Key:
Tempo: Quarter note 112–120

Play from Beginning to End.

Errata:
THIS ETUDE IS TO BE PLAYED ON THREE TIMPANI ONLY. FOUR TIMPANI MAY NOT BE USED.

Ms. 23 - The dynamic on the half-note B-natural should read “fp" instead of "sp."

Performance Guide:
This etude MUST be played on only three drums. In general, I recommend the 32", 29" and 26" drums. However, this may not be practical on some models of timpani, so the player should carefully evaluate their drums to determine which sizes are most suitable.

One of the most challenging moments in the etude occurs in mm. 9-10. The final three eighth notes of ms. 9, the final two eighths of ms. 10, and the downbeat of ms. 11 require melodic tuning on a single drum—that is, each of these pitches is played on the 26" drum. The proper method here is not to simply play a glissando, but instead to snap the pedal to each pitch nearly simultaneously with the mallet striking the head. The result should be a crisp change of notes and clear pitch on each.

Proper dampening should be incorporated when appropriate. Generally, heads should be dampened when followed by an unrolled dotted-eighth or longer note on another drum; however, do not over-dampen.

In mm. 6-7, the ending note of each glissando should be re-struck.

While this is a robust, driving etude, the player should prioritize playing with a full, rich tone and not a harsh, "poundy" one. Hard, staccato mallets are most appropriate for this etude. Articulation should always be crisp and clear, even at softer dynamic levels.