All-State Band Audition Etudes

This is the official listing of the Band Division All-State Audition Material for 2021–2022. All amendments, corrections and errata will become official only when it is published here.

The TMEA All-State Performance Guides are provided as a tool to help you. Be sure to make note of any changes that may appear here during the upcoming months. Errata will not be posted in the Southwestern Musician magazine. Should you discover any errata in the music that may have been missed, please notify the State Band Division Chair.


Flute and Piccolo

Book Title: Flute Etudes Book
Editor: Mary Karen Clardy
Publisher: European American Music Corp. or Schott
Edition: EA 764 0-913574-96-1
Etude Selector Video Performance Guide


Flute and Piccolo Selection 1

Etude Title: Op. 107 / 10
Page(s): 24
Tempo: Dotted Eighth Note= 120–132

Play from beginning to end.

Errata:
m. 7 - 7th note in measure is an A natural. Accidental does not carry to this octave.
m. 13- should have a crescendo and NOT a decrescendo.
m. 15, last note should be F-sharp, not A
ms. 4 and 11, the eighth note should be a dotted eighth note.

Performance Guide:
This selection is marked "Leggero e veloce" (Italian for lightly and swiftly) and in the original German "Locker und geschwind" (In a frivolous manner). Because of the constantly varying articulations, the pulse shifts frequently. Articulation is perhaps the most important factor in preparation. Remember that when a slur is followed by a staccato note, the last note of the slur is also short.

To begin this etude, start slowly, with the 16th note getting the beat, using a metronome consistently. Increase tempo to a feeling of three beats with a triplet on each beat (as soon as the articulation and notes allow.) The articulation should be light and unforced, easy and nimble. Practice saying the articulations. Use a bit of emphasis on the first note of the 2-note slurs. Emphasis can be done with a tummy-kick and/or a bit of vibrato shimmer. This will be beneficial in defining the constant changes in pulse.

To master the larger interval changes such as in mm. 5,13, 15, etc., start slowly, making sure that the embouchure moves down and back for lower notes and up and forward for the higher ones. As the tempo increases, the changes should not be as radical. The airstream should be steady while making these adjustments.

Look for "hidden" melodic lines such as mm. 3 and 13. The lower notes provide the melody while the upper notes remain constant. Note the chromaticism in mm. 10 and 27. Check all accidentals.

With exception to mm. 2 and 32, to help facilitate responsiveness and lower the pitch of third-octave E, lift the pinky. This is very helpful in m. 18. In m.4, you might add the middle and ring fingers of the right hand to the C-sharp. This will aid in lowering the pitch. Darken the color of this note as much as possible.

Don't forget to pay special attention to the last two notes of the piece, decreasing to "pp". In order to play the high E softly and in tune, lift the right hand pinky and add the second trill key. For the last note, high A, use the low C-sharp key instead of the E-flat key. This will help it respond and raise its pitch. Vibrate on the final note.

Breaths should be taken in the rests.


Flute and Piccolo Selection 2

Etude Title: 27. Ab Minor
Page(s): 42-43
Tempo: Quarter note 60–69

Play from beginning to first note in m. 36.

Errata:
m. 13 - F# should be F double sharp

Performance Guide:
Andante cantabile refers to a moderate, walking tempo, and the etude should not be performed too slowly. Cantabile is in a singing style, so remember to think of phrases that can be sung in order to maintain pulse and phrase direction. Boehm suggests this etude should be practiced to develop tone quality, color, vibrato and expression.

The written key changes occurring within this etude (7 flats/5 sharps/7 flats/4 flats) challenge musical reading skills, so careful study for note accuracy is essential when learning this etude. Daily scale and arpeggio practice of each key (A-flat Minor, B Major and A-flat Major) build musical and technical skill in these unfamiliar keys, adding confidence in performance.

Maintain constant rhythmic subdivision throughout the etude for accuracy in notated rhythms (eighth and sixteenth notes alternating with triplet eighth notes.) Rhythmic subdivision is an individual responsibility, and practicing with metronome is only the first step in the process. Rhythms should be exact and performed with little or no rubato. Practice long notes with subdivisions performed aloud, especially those with ties and dots, for accuracy. Rubato is appropriate in m. 8 in the style of a cadenza, with a graceful approach through the sextuplet to the highest note. Boehm provides another opportunity for rubato from m. 24-28,so enjoy the opportunity for rhythmic freedom and linger on the melodic notes for added expression.

Maintain a full, resonant tone throughout the etude, with smooth legato slurs throughout the registers. Sustain phrase endings through to the next rest, with energy and direction to connect musical thoughts across rests to the next phrase.

Be aware of intonation issues throughout this etude. Boehm challenges the performer with every difficulty, including low and soft = flat; high and loud = sharp, middle register D-flat = sharp, middle register E-flat = sharp, etc., so practice consistently with a tuner in order to learn the flute's tendencies and adjust accordingly.

Vibrato is an expressive element in this cantabile style, and variety in vibrato adds color and artistry to phrases. Practice vibrato exercises daily to develop awareness, experimenting with speed and width to add variety. Vibrato enhances phrasing and adds an artistic element in performance. For example, in the two-measure crescendo and decrescendo patterns throughout the etude, try using more vibrato to enhance the dynamic at the highest point of the phrase.

This etude provides opportunity to practice the three fingerings for B-flat (lever B-flat, 1 + 1, and thumb B-flat), and all three fingerings are appropriate in different situations in the etude. Decide on the appropriate fingering for the key/scale, and mark the fingering in the music for added technical confidence.


Flute and Piccolo Selection 3

Etude Title: Op. 15 / 16
Page(s): 50-51
Tempo: Dotted Quarter Note = 50–62

Play from (begin in) m. 17 to play to the end.

Errata:
In the book it is listed as Opus 15/16. It is actually Opus 63/14
M. 22 – Natural/Flat sign above the mordent on the 13th note of the bar:  Explanation - The natural sign cancels the F# earlier in the measure.  The flat sign changes the F natural to Fb.  The mordent then goes from Eb to Fb and back to Eb (or Eb to E natural, then back to Eb)
            M. 24 there is a missing mordent on the 8th note of the measure, from A natural to Bb and back to A natural.  (This is the second note of the second group of notes.)-(revised 7/13/2021)
Piccolo Errata: m. 18 and m. 26 Replace the low Dflat (1st note on beat 4) with an Aflat. (revised 7/14/2021)
M. 26- downbeat of count 3 add an accent (<).revised (8/5/2021)

Performance Guide:

Do not be misled by the term Andante at the beginning. This etude will be quite fast.

The challenges in this Andersen etude are as follows: key signature of 6 flats, numerous accidentals, mental and physical fatigue, and the total lack of rests.

Most students should begin slowly WITHOUT the mordents. If your default Bb fingering is THUMB Bb, begin with the mordents.  (Playing the mordents will determine which Bb fingering you should use.) This etude .provides opportunity to practice the three fingerings for B-flat (1 + 1, thumb B-flat and lever Bb.) All three fingerings are appropriate in different situations in the etude. Decide on the appropriate fingering, and mark your choice in the music for added technical confidence.
 
These mordents go up to the next note in the key and back to the written note.  (They will feel like a triplet.)  An accidental above the mordent alters the note the mordent goes to.

Practice the skeleton by playing only the accented notes. This will help you hear the melody. Remember that accidentals last for an entire measure, and these measures are unusually long.

Once you achieve your goal tempo, you should follow the breath marks. If you need additional breaths, take them after the accented downbeat of the measure.

(revised 7/13/2021)


Soprano Clarinets

Book Title: Artistic Studies, Book 1 - From the French School
Editor: David Hite
Publisher: Southern Music Company
Edition: B362
Etude Selector Video Performance Guide


Soprano Clarinets Selection 1

Etude Title: 9 Caprices, 9
Page(s): 94-95
Tempo: Quarter Note = 108–116

Play from beginning to measure 50 downbeat.

Errata:
Do NOT take the repeat-revised 7/27/21
m. 3: Observe the slur over the first two notes. Change the long slur so that it starts on the grace note G and extends to the end of the measure.
m. 10: The 16th-notes should be slurred in groups of four (omit the longer slur over both groups)
m. 13: Observe the slurs on beats 1 and 2 and articulate all notes on beats 3 and 4 (revised 7/30/2021)
m. 22: play the shorter slurs (revised 7/14/21)
m. 23-25: Omit the long slurs that extend over the whole measure, observing the slurs underneath instead.
m.26: the "poco ritard" should be placed in M. 29 immediately preceding the Meno mosso. (revised 7/14/21)
m. 35: The downbeat of the fourth count should be an E natural, which is the leading tone for the key of f minor which arrives on the first count of the next measure.

Performance Guide:
This etude challenges the performer in the areas of range, rhythm and finger technique, including the execution of ornaments.

While the word uninhibited appears as a directive in measure 1, as much as this advice may seem to be an oxymoron, avoid having an uncontrolled or unfocused tone, especially on the altissimo F in measure 2. The so-called “long fingering” for the altissimo F might be a good option to avoid scooping the pitch and to provide a more covered tone. In measure 3 it is probably best to borrow the time for grace note from the fourth eighth note in to make it easier to execute a single trill on the 16th note. Avoid altering the time of the remaining 16th-notes in that measure. The repeated first notes of measure 6 should both be clearly articulated. Maintaining an 8th note subdivision makes it easier to switch from 16th-notes to 16th note sextuplets if each sextuplet is thought of as two groups of three – one group on the downbeat, the other on the upbeat.

Many of the etudes in this book were adapted from violin literature. Several measures contain two seemingly contradictory slur markings. The longer slurs over slurs of shorter duration mean that the bow continues in one direction for the duration of the longer slur, stopping very briefly at the end of each shorter slur underneath. As wind players, when faced with this situation we eliminate the longer of the slurs and observe the short ones. (See errata for a detailed list of where that applies in this etude.) In measure 28, the chromatic fingering for F# is recommended so the “blip” that usually results from using the standard middle finger is avoided entirely. Be sure to observe the Meno mosso at measure 30. That direction should be considered a blessing in view of the next 20 measures, with scale and broken chord passage work in the keys of A flat and D flat Major, f and b flat minor. Measure 34 offers a particular challenge in the second group of 16th-notes. The C to the E flat may be done one of two ways. One is to slide the right hand fourth finger from the C key to the E flat key. The other is to quickly switch from the right hand C to the left hand C during the second half of the sixteenth note. Follow the printed dynamic markings carefully. The poco piu mosso in measure 49 should accelerate enough to reach the original tempo at the Tempo I indication.

The trills in this etude are best played with a single trill, so as not to interfere with the rhythm of the remaining 16th-notes. For measure 3, it is probably best to place the grace note before beat three to allow sufficient time for the trill. For measure 47, either the side key B flat or the alternate fingering with the first fingers of the right and left hands could be used. The alternate fingering allows for less movement of the right hand, but may feel awkward at first. Whichever fingering is chosen, clipping the end of the slur allows more time to get from the E to the B flat.


Soprano Clarinets Selection 2

Etude Title: 32 Etudes, 14
Page(s): 60
Tempo: Quarter Note = 52–56

Play from beginning to end.

Errata:
None at this time.

Performance Guide:
This etude contains numerous instances that benefit from the use of alternate or chromatic fingerings. For example, measures 3, 6, 7 and 35 contain slurred chromatic passages that contain F sharp. E sharp and E natural (either ascending or descending). For the smoothest transition between the E sharp and the F sharp, the in measures 3, 6, 7 and 35 should be performed using the chromatic F sharp fingering. For the quasi-cadenza in the twelfth measure, the initial chalumeau F sharp should be played on the left hand because of the ensuing G sharp. The B natural in the initial flourish needs should be played using the chromatic (or forked) fingering using the right hand sliver key, like the chromatic F sharp mentioned earlier. The F sharp at the end of the first flourish is most easily played with the thumb and two side keys, as is the same pitch in the next flourish. Be sure to articulate the quarter note, and observe the parallel structure in the next octave. The first F# on the top line of the staff is probably best executed using the same fingering mentioned earlier (for measures 3, 6, 7 and 35). However, the F sharp following the next E sharp must be played with the standard fingering (second finger) because of the D immediately after. Following the breath mark, be careful not to break the slur between the first space F sharp and the A above the staff. The smoothest transition from the F sharp trill to the A can be accomplished by using the chromatic fingering for the F sharp and trilling the first finger of the left hand. If the upper note of the trill is too sharp using this technique, the final F sharp before the nachschlag (the two notes in the grace note font) should be played with the chromatic fingering.


Soprano Clarinets Selection 3

Etude Title: 40 Studies, No. 11
Page(s): 12
Tempo: Dotted quarter note 56–69

Play from beginning to end.

Errata:
None at this time.

Performance Guide:
Play this etude in a light, playful manner. The staccato should be dry and quite separated. Pay close attention to the few spots where the articulation pattern changes. It is useful to practice this etude with the metronome beating eighth notes, but in performance the “big” dotted quarter note beat should be felt to help keep it light. Aim for the first note of each group of six. Use “long” or “1 and 1” B-flat in measures 22 and 24, but it would probably be better to not use it in measure 28. Keep the jaw steady through measure 38 and 39. Do not “reset” the embouchure for the lower notes.


Low Clarinets

Book Title: Artistic Studies, Book 1 - From the French School
Editor: David Hite
Publisher: Southern Music Company
Edition: B362
Etude Selector Video Performance Guide


Low Clarinets Selection 1

Etude Title: 40 Studies, No. 35
Page(s): 37
Tempo: Quarter Note = 84–100

Play from beginning to end.

Errata:
m. 32 - beats 3 and 4 should be under one slur as in measure 34

Performance Guide:
This selection will require a student to play with technical facility within a moderate tempo and appropriate musical style. If the tempo is too fast, the subdivisions within the sixteenth and sextuplets will be blurred and lack the precision needed to make this etude sound elegant and stylistically correct. Using a metronome set to an eighth-note beat is essential to help students develop the correct rhythm and technical command of the material.

The articulation in this etude can pose challenges, particularly with the larger intervals. Students will need to keep their embouchure and particularly their bottom jaw/lip still and use a tongue stroke that is efficient with proper air support. A “dee, dee, dee” tongue stroke and tongue tension is recommended.

The turn figures in measures 14 and 16 are the same. They are to be played as an even quintuplet using the top trill key in the right hand to play the B. If practicing with an eighth note beat slowly, this figure can be played precisely especially if the right hand can stay relaxed.

In measure 25, students should show a change of dynamic/color. Rushing the tempo and lax subdivision is often a problem here because the material seems easier for the student.

In measures 49-53, students should avoid over clipping the articulation and compressing the first two notes of the slurs. The fourth sixteenth of each beat should group forward to the next beat. These tips should help the flow and facility of this passage.

FOR CONTRABASS CLARINET ONLY:
m. 17-18 play down one octave.
m. 20 -24 beginning on the first sixteenth note in m.wo through the first beat of m.24 play down one octave. (revised 7/16/2021)


Low Clarinets Selection 2

Etude Title: 32 Etudes, 13
Page(s): 59
Tempo: Eighth note 116–126 revised 8/30/21

Play from beginning to beat 2 of m 48.

Errata:
m. 36 - Add a slur on each sixteenth note triplet on beat three as in ms. 37 - 38.
Contra clarinets play m 26 down an octave.

Performance Guide:
It is important that students play this etude by beating in eighth notes. Using a metronome set between 116-126 will help to insure good rhythmic subdivision as students must navigate between 16th notes, 16th note triplets and 32nd notes. Rhythm is the most common problem students have in playing slow etudes, so proper practice with a metronome is imperative.

In this etude, dynamics are very clearly marked with many being extreme in contrast. Although students are often encouraged to over exaggerate dynamic markings, they should use their ears and not just the eyes to determine proper dynamic levels. Tone quality should not suddenly change within a phrase (i.e., spread or dropping the core of sound) in order to exaggerate dynamics. Phrases should sound clear and natural.

In measure 7, the C-sharp 32nd note can be played with the left index finger only, essentially by overblowing a throat F-sharp. If a student uses this fingering, they need to keep the tongue in a high “ee” position and with a still embouchure.

In measure 16, the 32nd notes need to be played as late as possible. Students should mentally group them to the next beat, not relate them to the beat they just passed. The same strategy should be applied in measures 21 and 22.

In measures 28 and 29, the 16th note grace note pairs found at the end of trills, should be played as two 16th notes on the “and” or “te” of the second beat.

Use side-key F-sharp in m 14 and right pinky B natural in mm. 3, 11, 23, 25, 35 and 43.


Low Clarinets Selection 3

Etude Title: 40 Studies, No. 23
Page(s): 25
Tempo: Dotted Quarter Note = 60–76

Play from beginning to end.

Errata:
m. 31 - The B natural accidental does not carry to the upper octave in count two.
m. 31 - Contra clarinets can take beat 2 of m. 31 and beat 1 of measure 32 down an octave.
m. 33 - Last note in measure should be marked as an E natural.

Performance Guide:
When beginning to work on this etude, it is recommended to work with a metronome
set to an eighth note pulse, beginning at around 120 and moving up incrementally. It is important to not only focus on playing the right notes and rhythms, but also tone production, articulation, and phrasing for each passage.

The wedged articulation should not be overdone. Simply play them with a little more emphasis and with a short, pointed articulation. Slurred groupings should not be compressed (first two notes crunching together) and not be over clipped with the tongue at the end.

In the descending 16th note passages in measures 1-6, and similar figures throughout the etude, students should play the first 16th note with slightly gentler air and gradually Increase the air speed as they descend through the line. This should help with articulation, facility, and musical style.

In measures 17-21, the difficulty in reading the notes and fingerings increases dramatically. Encourage students to memorize these measures so they don’t become confused and panicked when under pressure, and to ensure they learn the notes correctly.

The rhythm in measures 28 and 29 can cause time/pulse issues because the material feels different and easier than previous passages.

In measures 51-53, as the intervals get larger, the embouchure often becomes loose and starts moving. It is important to keep the air, fingers, and embouchure grip steady and consistent. Pushing the upper lip down can help with this.


Oboe and English Horn

Book Title: 48 Famous Studies for Oboe or Saxophone
Editor: W. Ferling, Revised by Andraud
Publisher: Southern Music Company
Edition: B103
Etude Selector Video Performance Guide


Oboe and English Horn Selection 1

Etude Title: No. 24
Page(s): 12
Tempo: Dotted Quarter Note = 60–72

Play from beginning to end.

Errata:
None at this time.

Performance Guide:
Etude #24 is in F-sharp minor, which shares a key signature with A-major. An easy way to think of the natural minor scale is playing the A-major scale but starting and stopping on F-sharp. There are many arpeggios to practice. Start with tonic and dominant arpeggios and identify others as you progress.

Keep in mind that a Scherzando is playful and joking. Everything should be light and lifted, especially the staccatos. Length of a staccato is subjective. Do it the way that sounds best to you! The 3/8-time signature should be felt in one, even when learning the music slowly in three. Beats two and three should be lighter than beat one, especially if they have a staccato. Attention to this feel will not only ensure that you sound playful but will also help you reach your goal tempo.

There are not a lot of dynamic markings in this etude but there are many opportunities to add shape. Add in crescendos and decrescendos that help you play the phrases. Can you easily hear the difference between mf, f and ff? Record yourself and be honest.

M. 28 has a rit. marking, followed by a Tempo on the downbeat of m. 29. The more the player slows down, the more time they can take on that bar line. It can range from very slight to dramatic.

High F-sharp responds easier with the third octave key but, if you don’t have a third octave key, you may use the thumb octave key.



Oboe and English Horn Selection 2

Etude Title: No. 5
Page(s): 3
Tempo: Eighth note 68–76

Play from beginning to end.

Errata:
m. 17 is A Tempo

Performance Guide:
Etude #5 is in G major but visits e minor in the middle section. Learn the major and minor scales with 1-sharp in the key signature as well as any arpeggios identified. This lyrical etude should have a smooth style that imitates singing.

Staccatos should have clear articulation without sacrificing tone within the cantabile style. Articulate the staccatos under the slur in m. 15. They should be extremely legato.

The A#-B trill in m. 22, finger A# with the G# key added, then trill the A key. You should hear the printed note sound before you begin to trill. Practice trills without the following grace notes, hearing the primary pitch before and after you trill, and arriving on the next note with the metronome. Once that becomes reliable, add the grace notes, and check your timing with the metronome.

To improve high D response, increase your air pressure before you finger the note. You can also try adding the D key without covering the hole. If the D key on your oboe does not have a hole, you cannot use this fingering adaptation. In m. 22, high E may be fingered with your first, or third, octave key.

The dynamics range from pp to f. Learn the dynamics as you learn the notes and rhythms. Incorporate dynamics into long tones and scale practice. Can you easily hear a difference between piano and pianissimo? Each marking should be noticeably different than the others and every phrase should have a shape.



Oboe and English Horn Selection 3

Etude Title: No. 38
Page(s): 19
Tempo: Quarter Note = 116–126

Play from beginning to end.

Errata:
None at this time.

Performance Guide:
Etude #38 is in B-major and should sound majestic and stately. You need to use left-hand D-sharp when practicing this scale. Try to place your left pinky above the D-sharp key before you need to press the key to avoid a blip. Practice the scale full range to become more comfortable with high E and experiment with fingerings to find what sounds best on your oboe. Ferling uses a lot of arpeggios. Set aside practice time specifically for arpeggios.

Staccatos will be light and lifted. They mostly function as pickups, meaning they should have momentum leading them into the next downbeat. The accented notes are all longer note values. They need to have a brilliant tone, clear articulation, and energetic vibrato. There should also be a decay in volume on each accented note to enhance the Maestoso feel.

The X symbol is a double sharp, meaning you will raise the written pitch a whole step instead of a half step.

The dynamic spectrum is vast so make sure there is a distinct difference between each dynamic marking, especially on neighboring volumes (ex. f to ff). Remember to add shape to every phrase with crescendos and decrescendos.

There are 3 trills from E-F# but each is a different rhythmic value. Make sure you hear the E before you begin to trill. It is standard to start the trill slowly and speed up to create forward momentum. All the single grace notes should be played before the beat (mm. 4, 17, 29).


Bassoon

Book Title: Concert Studies, Opus 26, Volume I
Editor: Milde, Edited by Kovar
Publisher: International Music Company
Edition: No. 467
Etude Selector Video Performance Guide


Bassoon Selection 1

Etude Title: No. 16
Page(s): 30-31
Tempo: Quarter Note = 84–100

Play from beginning to end of m. 26 to cut to m. 44 and play to end.

Errata:
M.6, on beat 4, the second 16th note "E" should be played as an "Eflat".
M. 19 the second note on beat three should be an Aflat (the A natural does NOT carry through the measure) (revised 7/28/2021)
M. 55-56: there are three sets of trills followed by grace notes. Tongue each half note and apply a slur over the grace notes.

Performance Guide:
This etude features a nice balance between scales in 3rds and 4ths as well as lyrical conjunct motion. Work on discovering the hidden melodies layered in the arpeggiations. This piece is in E-flat major, which means that there are many times when we need to go between low F and low A-flat. You can make this note connection smooth by using the roller from the low F key to the low A-flat key, rather than picking up the pinky when changing notes. We play the high A-flat several times in this piece, and this is a good time to evaluate the high A-flat fingerings in your toolbox. There are many appropriate fingerings for high A-flat, so carefully consider which is the best choice for each occasion. I try to select fingerings based on tuning, tone, and the technique of the passage in question. Tuning, tone, and technique sometimes need to be put in a different order of priority depending on the passage, so don’t be afraid to expand your horizons and try different fingerings – I have included 3 such fingerings. To play the trills in measures 55 and 56, B-flat to C, finger B-flat and trill the 3rd finger on the left hand (don’t hold down the 4th thumb key), the C to D trill does not require a special fingering (but also don’t hold town the 4th thumb key), and for the D to E-flat trill, try fingering high D and then trilling right hand fingers 5 and 6. Be careful to distinguish between the 16th notes, the 16th note sextuplets, and the 32nd notes – subdivide through ties so you’re sure to hold the long notes the right amount of time.



Bassoon Selection 2

Etude Title: No. 20
Page(s): 38-39
Tempo: Quarter note 46–56

Play from beginning to the downbeat of m. 32 to cut to m. 52, beat 2, and play to end.

Errata:
M. 77 and M. 78-the eighth notes should be triplets (revised 7/28/2021)

Performance Guide:
This etude has a lot of potential for musicality. Seek ways to play with your own lyrical style. Your execution, however, should reflect the rhythms written on the page. Carefully count the triplet versus the dotted 8th/16th note rhythm. Count and subdivide carefully through long notes and tied notes to ensure accuracy of rhythm. There are several high D-flats in this piece. There are multiple fingerings possible for this note - as with any fingering choice, we carefully consider the musical context in choosing the best fingering. The D-flats are prominent and played as long notes, which means that tuning and tone are especially important. The reed is as equal a partner as the fingering choice in the success of this note. The best reed for this piece will have a bit more resistance built into it so that the high D-flat will speak and sound in tune. Furthermore, narrow the diameter of the embouchure, raise the tongue in the back of the throat, and as always, use more air. The careful selection of a G-flat fingering is also helpful. In measure 15, for example the slur from the D-flat up to high G-flat may call for a special G-flat fingering that is more likely to speak cleanly. I suggest the fingering below for that spot. Notice that there is an accelerando in measures 68 through 70. Whatever you do in this piece, strive for musicality and lyrical playing to make it your own.



Bassoon Selection 3

Etude Title: No. 13
Page(s): 24-25
Tempo: Dotted Quarter Note = 66–80

Play from beginning to m. 58 to cut to measure 78 and play to the end.

Errata:
None at this time.

Performance Guide:
This etude in 6/8 time is full of energy and momentum. As you prepare this piece, think carefully about the best way to combine the staccato, dynamics, and phrasing to capitalize on that energy and momentum. Don’t get too caught up in each individual measure – think about the crests in the phrases and how you can lead the musical lines. Starting in the key of D-sharp minor, this piece features many instances of motion to or from F-sharp and D-sharp, and F-sharp and A-sharp. When moving from F-sharp to another note that takes a different right hand thumb key, it is helpful to use the front (pinky) F-sharp fingering to aid in smooth note connections as well as speed and facility. Both in the D-sharp minor section as well as the B-flat minor section, carefully consider the fingering selected for high F-sharp/G-flat. There are several common fingerings, and some may sound better than others depending on the individual instrument. The fingering without whisper key or half hole can speak a little more clearly. Whichever fingering you select, consider the issues of tuning, tone, and technique in the given passage. Here are several possibilities for the high F-sharp/G-flat fingering. In measures 27 to 30 be sure to subdivide internally to ensure that you’re not rushing through the tied rhythms. Spend time carefully thinking through the accidentals in the key signature and those written in, including the double sharps.



Contra Bassoon

Book Title: Practical Method for the Bassoon - 50 Advanced Studies
Editor: Weissenborn / Ambrosio
Publisher: Carl Fischer
Edition: O2150 0-8258-0350-0
Etude Selector Video Performance Guide


Contra Bassoon Selection 1

Etude Title: Fifty Advanced Studies, No. 15
Page(s): 88-89
Tempo: Quarter Note = 108–126 at m. 88 quarter note = 66-76

Play from M.30 to end.

Errata:
None at this time.

Performance Guide:
This is an iconic etude in the bassoon repertoire, and it should present some fun challenges on the contrabassoon both in terms of technique and lyricism in playing. It may be helpful to plan breaths more frequently in an etude when playing it on contrabassoon than one would when playing it on the bassoon. I recommend planning your breaths and practicing the execution of those breaths just as you would practice difficult finger patterns. If you have a variety of E-flat fingerings available to you on your contrabassoon, in this etude you might choose to employ more than one E-flat fingering. For example, in measures 74, 102 and 105 it would be practical to use either the left or right version of the E-flat fingering, however in measures 65 and 73 using the right-hand E-flat fingering (with the right-hand thumb E-flat) helps create smoother note connections. Regarding style, you don’t have to overdo the staccato notes on the contrabassoon to get the point across. Consider the staccato to be notes that are lifted or have more space between them than if they were not written with staccato markings. Be careful with the articulation written in measures 101 and 108 – this looks like staccato with a slur above it. This articulation is called portato and it is not the same as staccato. It is performed like a slightly detached (tongued) version of legato. Above all, play this piece being mindful of the variety of moods of the sections, and be expressive.



Contra Bassoon Selection 2

Etude Title: Fifty Advanced Studies, No. 39
Page(s): 110-111
Tempo: Dotted Quarter Note = 34–44

Play from M. 30 to end.

Errata:
None at this time.

Performance Guide:
This is a hauntingly beautiful piece for the bassoon, and on the contrabassoon, the rich, deep tone quality has the potential to bring the melodies of this etude to a new level. Be mindful of the 9/8 time signature, and practice accuracy of rhythms by subdividing the beat into eight notes audibly with the metronome, and when needed, into sixteenth notes as well. There is no need to rush through this piece at an overly fast tempo – stop and smell the roses. On the other hand, be sure the tempo does not drag (feel the timing in 3 beats per measure, rather than 9 beats per measure). There are several spots where there are accents written under a slur (measures 38, 40, 42, and 44, for example). The way to play those accents is with an extra jet of air (rather than by rearticulating). The articulation of the staccato dots under the slur in measure 35 indicates to play portato, which is not the same as staccato. It is performed like a slightly detached (tongued) version of legato. In places where staccato is written (measures 45-48, for example), don’t overdo the staccato – play these as lifted rather than as extremely short notes. Spend time working on the tuning of the high register notes. The designation of rf stands for rinforzando (sudden accent, reinforced – Morelli). In measures like 39 and 41 we see this written preceding a pp marking, so mind that dramatic dynamic shift as well. The notes are important, but the music is more important. Be sure to make it musical.


Contra Bassoon Selection 3

Etude Title: Fifty Advanced Studies, No. 14
Page(s): 88
Tempo: Quarter note 88–104

Play from beginning to end.

Errata:
None at this time.

Performance Guide:
The contrabassoon is a different instrument from the bassoon, requiring different fingerings, and different concepts of air, embouchure, and voicing (how closed or open the throat is). I encourage you to work carefully on developing an understanding of contrabassoon fingerings, embouchure, air, and voicing before starting to play repertoire. In this etude it is helpful to keep several things in mind regarding style and rhythm. First, make sure that the triplets are even and smooth – not clipped off or made to sound like two 16th notes and an 8th note. Next, when tonguing in passages where the first note of each triplet is tongued, employ a smooth, connected articulation, and avoid clipping off the last note of the previous triplet. There is a grand total of one dynamic written in this etude – a poco forte at the beginning. I suggest adding more dynamics according to your own musical taste. Whatever you do musically and dynamically, consider the direction of the musical line in planning your phrasing. There are opportunities for musicality if you make them. As you go up from the fundamental range of the contrabassoon into the second octave, be careful to increase your air to ensure that the notes over the break speak cleanly and clearly. In spots where the musical line dips into the basso range (the very low notes), use the momentum of continuous air to ensure that the low notes speak, for example, in measure 33 as you go down to the low D and in measure 45 as you go down to the low C.


Saxophones

Book Title: 48 Famous Studies for Oboe or Saxophone
Editor: W. Ferling, Revised by Andraud
Publisher: Southern Music Company
Edition: B103
Etude Selector Video Performance Guide


Saxophones Selection 1

Etude Title: No. 12
Page(s): 6
Tempo: Quarter note 116–132

Play from beginning to end.

Errata:
None at this time.

Performance Guide:
“Furioso” can be interpreted as “great force”, “vigor”, “furiously” or “wildly.” These characteristics are built in somewhat with the driving 16th notes, f – ff dynamics, fast tempo, accents and frequent movement across the octaves of the saxophone. This etude is also written with a lot of downbeat emphasis and can begin to sound vertical. Avoid overdoing the accents in the first seven measures as they are also somewhat built into the contour. Throughout this etude think of precision, forward motion and staying on top of the tempo. Ensure that you are singing every note clearly in your head as you play. Using a lighter and less “stopped” approach to staccato can also help the music move forward with energy. I use bis B-flat throughout except in m. 11, 17, and 18 beat 4, where I use side B-flat.


Saxophones Selection 2

Etude Title: No. 29
Page(s): 15
Tempo: Eighth Note = 76–88

Play from beginning to end.

Errata:
m. 18 - the last three notes are 16th note triplets.

Performance Guide:
“Amabile” refers to a charming, gracious or amiable style. You may want to approach dynamics and your use of vibrato with a level of restraint or subtly. This etude isn’t overly dramatic and doesn’t need exaggerated dynamics or color. All staccato figures in this etude may be slightly separated and perhaps lifted – avoid playing them too short. The cadenza in m. 6 may be performed like the rest of the etude – without too much drama or intensity. Strive to perform this etude with the most beautiful sound possible and an even, round vibrato.


Saxophones Selection 3

Etude Title: No. 32
Page(s): 16
Tempo: Dotted Quarter Note = 66–76

Play from beginning to end.

Errata:
None at this time.

Performance Guide:
The relatively slower tempo of this etude allows for the possibility of more color and nuance on individual 16th notes. For example, the B-sharps that start occurring in m.5 can be handled slightly differently than the downbeats of the previous 4 bars. As you prepare this etude, take time to show this kind of movement in the melody. In the trill / grace note figures in the 1st 4 bars of line 3, you may want to use a single trill to F-sharp then straight into the grace notes. Practice these measures initially without the ornamentation to ensure accurate placement of the melody. Throughout this etude, the 1st and 4th sextuplet are emphasized by the contour - take care to support and push through all of the sextuplets (including the 2nd, 3rd, 5th and 6th).


Cornet/Trumpet

Book Title: Fourteen Characteristic Studies
Editor: J. B. Arban
Publisher: Carl Fischer
Edition: W2527 0-8258-2028-6
Etude Selector Video Performance Guide


Cornet/Trumpet Selection 1

Etude Title: No. 7
Page(s): 11
Tempo: Quarter note 70–84

Play from beginning to downbeat m. 70.

Errata:
None at this time.

Performance Guide:
Begin practicing the etude very slowly with a metronome and gradually increase tempo until a comfortable and accessible tempo is achieved. Master all articulation and dynamic markings from the very beginning to avoid relearning passages.The flowing slurred passages need to be smooth and connected without clipping the last note of the slur. Staccato passages should be very light and lifted, but not too short. This etude will require a good breathing plan, and it is acceptable to make small breaks (m.16 and 24) to make sure that the right amount of breath support can be maintained. Short breath exercises are recommended. I also recommend eight measure phrases in the Piu mosso section when possible.


Cornet/Trumpet Selection 2

Etude Title: No. 12
Page(s): 16
Tempo: Quarter Note = 80–100

Play from beginning to downbeat m.44.

Errata:
None at this time.

Performance Guide:
This etude will require technical work in the keys of F minor, Db Major, and C Major. Again, Scales, arpeggios,Clarke,and Arban studies are recommended. Start learning the etude very slowly in sections with a metronome. Master articulation and dynamic markings from the very beginning to avoid relearning passages, and increase tempo gradually until a comfortable and accessible tempo is achieved. Practice large interval leaps slowly, and play both tongued and slurred. I suggest a ritard at m. 20 into the fermata. The cantabile section can pull back a bit,and there is room for lyrical and musical expression. . I also recommend taking out the breath marks at m. 24 and 32 to avoid over breathing and accumulation of air. There are also many recordings of this etude with different interpretations. Always keep the intent of the composer in mind when choosing interpretations.


Cornet/Trumpet Selection 3

Etude Title: No. 9
Page(s): 13
Tempo: Quarter note 90–104

Play from beginning to downbeat m.43 (revised 7/11/2021).

Errata:
None at this time.

Performance Guide:
Suggested tempo is very conservative so that the etude can be performed comfortably, and to avoid having to make a choice between single and double tongue. Begin by practicing the etude very slowly with a metronome in sections, working towards a comfortable and accessible tempo. Pay close attention to articulation and dynamic markings form the very beginning to avoid relearning passages. There are many recordings for this etude on You Tube with different tempos and interpretations. Be sure to keep the intent of the composer in mind when choosing individual interpretations of this etude. The etude will require technical work in the key of Bb Major. Clarke and Arban studies will be beneficial in developing the technical facility to master this piece. Staccato passages should be light and lifted, but not too short. In the slurred passages, avoid clipping the second note of the two slurred sixteenth figures in m. 11,15,and 25. I suggest playing four measure phrases in the opening section for better breath control. The Piu largo at m. 28 has room for some musical nuance and very lyrical playing. The Piu Allegro should go back to tempo I with possible accelerando to the end.


F Horn

Book Title: 40 Characteristic Etudes
Editor: Kling, Ed. and Rev. - Sansone
Publisher: Southern Music Company
Edition: B131
Etude Selector Video Performance Guide


F Horn Selection 1

Etude Title: No. 2
Page(s): 2 (Sansone edition) or 4 in other editions(revised 7/14/21)
Tempo: Quarter Note = 80–92

Play from beginning to end.

Errata:
M. 31- Add a slur on beat 4 from the G to the A. This should mimic the articulation in m. 23.(revised 8/6/2021)

Performance Guide:
This etude is based on an operatic melody, so use your most singing style. Find a cheerful character throughout, and remember that a faster tempo may not be better than a slower one. Note that all gracenotes happen before the beat. Use the first 16 measures to establish phrasing that is clear to the listener and expressive. Treat staccato notes with light separation, but there is no need to be completely dry. Since the trills on beats 1 and 2 in m. 28 are whole steps, they should be performed as lip trills. For G-A, consider F:12 or F:13, and for C-D, consider F:0, with the nachschlags happening before each beat. Strive for even, beautiful trills, but consider not over-prioritizing them in your practice--they are merely ornaments. For the high As that occur between measures 33-38, experiment to find the most in tune and secure fingering--your options are B:0, B:12, and B:3. For the wide leaps in m. 45/46, and m. 50, practice these filled in by a slow glissando, speeding them up until the slur is possible in tempo.


F Horn Selection 2

Etude Title: No. 21
Page(s): 17 (Sansone edition) 19 in other editions (revised 7/14/21)
Tempo: Eighth Note = 80–90

Play from beginning to end.

Errata:
None at this time.

Performance Guide:
This is an opportunity to demonstrate your legato slurs and expressive creativity. Remember that slurs are based on glissandos. You can use mouthpiece buzzing to be sure that all slurs, especially the widest ones, are fluid and singing. In your preparation, listen for any hints of individual note-blooming/”twa-twa” in your note-changes and articulation--connection is key. Notice that although the beginning is marked piano, Kling also asks us to be expressive. Don’t allow the soft dynamic to prevent expression. Throughout all passages, be sure to keep your approach graceful. The faster and more arpeggiated the music becomes, the more you should focus on smoothness and steady air flow. Based on the length of the phrase beginning in m. 13, you may need to consider breaking a slur to breath in m. 16. Additionally, consider a slight ritardando and breath after the third 8th in m. 17. Make the cadenza your own and be free: your pacing will be unique to you, and the note values are merely a guide. Breathe where you feel musically and practically appropriate. Play the turn in m. 28 gracefully. Treat the 2 staccato 8ths in m. 33 generously.


F Horn Selection 3

Etude Title: No. 17
Page(s): 12-13 (Sansone edition) 14-15 other editions (revised 7/14/21)
Tempo: Dotted Quarter Note = 46–56

Play from beginning to end.

Errata:
m. 50, the written B on the third 16th note should be a C

Performance Guide:
This selection is based on the tune “The Carnival of Venice” and should be given great character. Pay special attention to the long pickups that lead to short downbeats, a prominent musical feature. Tempo is especially important in the etude. The tune is straightforward, but it goes through a great deal of elaboration later, so choose your tempo based on the speed at which you can play the most difficult passages successfully. The beginning passage is marked piano, but be sure to think of this as just a starting place. Always be expressive and play with your best tone. When the 16th notes begin in m. 17, hold the tempo steady, as it will be tempting to rush. Throughout, all ornaments happen before the beat. Apply the phrase-shaping from the main tune to the entirety of the etude. This musical focus will not only to make difficult passages feel easier, it will also be more enjoyable for the listener. Depending on your tempo, m. 31 may need to be double-tongued. Use plentiful air to achieve the arpeggios in the second half of the etude and a minimum of excess effort--keep it easy. If you like, it is musically appropriate to drive the tempo forward a bit in the last 4 measures. Have fun!


Tenor Trombone

Book Title: Selected Studies
Editor: H. Voxman
Publisher: Rubank / Hal Leonard
Edition: No. 159 HLO4470720
Etude Selector Video Performance Guide


Tenor Trombone Selection 1

Etude Title: Allegretto
Page(s): 21
Tempo: Quarter note 116–132

Play from beginning to end.

Errata:
m. 12 - add a slur between the second and third eighth notes - revised 7/2/2021
m. 51 - add a slur between the first two sixteenths
m. 72 - beat one should be a 'G-sharp'
m. 77 - omit the slur between the first two printed notes and add a breath mark

Performance Guide:
This theme and variations is reminiscent of pieces by the famous trombone soloist and composer, Arthur Pryor and should be performed with the same kind of rubato as "Blue Bells of Scotland". It is appropriate to add rubato throughout for a musically mature performance. Listen to recordings of Pryor to learn this style. For instance, the introductory statement could be confident with a slight accelerando in mm. 5-6 and a ritard in m. 7. The next melodic idea begins softly, gaining momentum. Try a slight ritard in mm. 22-23. Play lighter with a lifted style in m. 24, which begins the first variation. Variation 2 begins in m. 40, and it would be appropriate to push the tempo faster in mm. 53-55. There is another introductory statement in m. 57, and adding an accelerando in mm. 59-62 would fit. Do not neglect learning this piece with the metronome first. The subdivision of a piece is what speeds up or slows down to create a good rubato feel.

Be sure to play the indicated accents throughout the etude. Staccato markings in mm. 5-6, 61-62 indicate a clarity of articulation rather than note length. Perform them slightly louder rather than too short. Pryor used natural slurs and many alternate positions to facilitate technique, as should this etude. First ledger line ‘D’ above the staff can be played in long fourth position to help facilitate technique in places like mm. 51, 53, and 66. Some of the high ‘F’s make more sense in a short 4th instead of 1st. Be aware of pitch; play high ‘G’ in a short second and high ‘F-sharp’ in short third. This is a fun etude that should be enjoyed and performed with flair. Be playful with dynamics, tempos, and articulations.


Tenor Trombone Selection 2

Etude Title: Gb Major - Adagio cantabile
Page(s): 30
Tempo: Quarter Note = 68–76

Play from beginning to end.

Errata:
None at this time.

Performance Guide:
Work for a beautiful singing style and tone quality. Take care when learning this etude to subdivide. The player will need to learn to switch from simple to compound time even within measures. For instance, m. 27 has a triplet feel on beat two, eighth notes on beat three, returning to a triplet feel on beat four. Practice rhythms with a metronome while playing the subdivisions and then adding back the “ties”. In this key, middle ‘F’s work well in 6th position when they are next to a ‘G-flat’. Be careful to play ‘C-flats’ in 4th throughout. The double flat in m. 22 lowers the note by two half steps, so in this instance, the note is played like an ‘A’. Use this key as an opportunity to work on intonation. Make the slide adjustments needed on high ‘G-flat’ (short third), high ‘F’ (long first), high ‘E’ or ‘F-flat’ (long second), and high ‘E-flat’ (long third). Mm 14, 31 are good places to practice ‘B-flat’ in short 5th. Play with a tuner. Use a light ‘du’ tongue and a quick slide throughout for the slurs to get a smooth connected style. Make an articulation difference on the notes that are not slurred. Practice playing very softly with a good supported sound in the pp sections. Use vibrato on long notes, and when you do, make sure to use a “jaw vibrato”.


Tenor Trombone Selection 3

Etude Title: F Major - Allegretto
Page(s): 10
Tempo: Dotted Quarter Note = 80–102

Play from beginning to end.

Errata:
m. 28, 5th eighth note should be ‘D-sharp’.
m.70, beat 1, dotted quarter should be ‘B-flat’ slurred to the ‘A’.

Performance Guide:
This exultant etude should be played energetically in a fast two tempo with the dotted quarter receiving the beat value. There are abundant dynamic changes from p to ff, and each change should be made obvious and dramatic. The biggest challenge will be fitting the grace notes within the rhythm while keeping the beat steady. The grace notes should be played before the downbeats, so that they value of the note is taken from the beat before. Try using natural slurs in most cases to help with technique, and the slide should be very quick. Use a metronome to help learn the timing. Alternatively, leave the grace notes out. There are numerous instances where ‘D’ above the staff should be played in its alternate position of long fourth. Look for places where ‘D’ is between ‘E-flat’ and ‘C’ or next to ‘B’. In mm. 29-31, be careful to carry the accidental through the measure. The style throughout should be lifted with clear articulations at the front of notes that aren’t slurred. Keep the airstream steady in the eighth note triplet passages and let the tongue do the work.


Bass Trombone

Book Title: 24 Studies
Editor: Grigoriev / Ostrander
Publisher: International
Edition: No. 3094
Etude Selector Video Performance Guide


Bass Trombone Selection 1

Etude Title: No. 6
Page(s): 8
Tempo: Quarter Note = 104–112

Play from beginning to end.

Errata:
None at this time.

Performance Guide:
The style markings of maestoso and espressivo present a unique pairing of intensity and grace. Develop a clear, projected sound with a firm articulation to play in a maestoso style. Feel the pulse in two by giving the half note the beat, and blow through the quarter notes to play espressivo. Start each crescendo much softer than the dynamic goal of the phrase. This demonstrates a wider dynamic range.

Think of the opening dynamic as big but not loud. Work out the double-dotted quarter/sixteenth note rhythm precisely at a slow tempo so that the sixteenth note snaps as you increase in tempo. Quarter notes should always be full length with direction to, and through, the triplet (ex. m 2-4). All of this pertains to the return of the opening from m 33 to the end as well.

The middle section (mm 21-32) is lighter and more nimble. Make sure to differentiate the dotted eighth/sixteenth rhythm from the triplets. Let the triplets flow and the dotted rhythms dance. Crescendos should be more warm and mellow with long, clearly articulated quarter notes. The two ritardandos (mm 31-32 and mm 46-47) can be either subtle or dramatic depending on your interpretation. Allow them to slow down organically, and finish off these two phrases with conviction.


Bass Trombone Selection 2

Etude Title: No. 23
Page(s): 25
Tempo: Quarter note 52–58

Play from beginning to end.

Errata:
m. 19 - beat one, place a tenuto on the low Bb

Performance Guide:
This key is wonderful for development on bass trombone. Alternate positions and valve options abound. Middle B flat in sharp 5th, middle F in 6th, and low B flat in trigger flat 3rd are difficult to tune at first. But practicing slow, soft scales with a drone set to G flat and D flat together will help to lock in the pitch and match the tone quality with the conventional positions.

Before working out the legato articulation, play phrase by phrase softly without the tongue to learn to rely on air and embouchure to connect the notes without losing the buzz (smears are welcome!). When adding the tongue, find the legato syllable that allows seamless connection while covering up for the movement of the slide (da, ra, na, la, etc.). This may be different from one player to another, but what matters is how it sounds.

The opening should sound completely at ease with a resonant glow to the tone. Keep a long tone feeling with the air stream while flowing through each phrase with clean and precise legato technique. Keep the sound relaxed into the forte dynamics.

The middle section (mm 16-32) brings more drama. Stay within a full, round tone quality while adding noticeable variety to dynamic range and articulation. Accented notes require more weight on the front with decay after, while tenuto notes are more subtle. Once execution of the technique develops, consider adding rubato (push and pull of tempo), especially in the middle section, to build and release musical tension.


Bass Trombone Selection 3

Etude Title: No. 16
Page(s): 18
Tempo: Dotted quarter note 120–132

Play from beginning to end.

Errata:
None at this time.

Performance Guide:
This etude is fun and exciting, demonstrating elements of virtuosity and style. Start practicing four measures plus one downbeat at a time at an extremely slow tempo. Repeat the phrase at the slow tempo until satisfied with the tone and technique. Gradually increase the tempo 2-4 beats per minute. Repeat the process at the new tempo 2-3 times on this phrase. Then move on to the next phrase back at the original slower tempo and repeat the entire process for each phrase thereafter.

This etude must always be nimble and light regardless of range and dynamic. Maintain a long tone feeling with the air support and let the sound and technique ride on top of that cushion of air. The quarter notes are not staccato, but always have bounce to them with direction through each beat to the high point of the phrase.

The middle section has a more playful feeling, as it moves to A flat major and should be played in a more relaxed manner, perhaps even at a slightly slower tempo. The intensity immediately picks up as the opening returns with the F minor key to drive the piece (almost) recklessly to the end.

The marked positions and valve choices are reasonable. Feel free, though, to experiment with alternatives to find more preferable combinations.


Euphonium

Book Title: Selected Studies
Editor: H. Voxman
Publisher: Rubank / Hal Leonard
Edition: No. 160 HLO4470730
Etude Selector Video Performance Guide


Euphonium Selection 1

Etude Title: Allegretto grazioso
Page(s): 21 (22)
Tempo: Quarter Note = 96–120

Play from beginning to end (no repeats).

Errata:
M. 52 add "p"(revised 8/27/21)
M. 60 add "p" on the 16th note Concert E on the upbeat of count 1(revised 8/27/21)
M. 62 move the "ff" to the upbeat of count 1 (revised 8/27/21)
M. 64 change the "smorz" to "dim" (revised 8/27/21)

Performance Guide:
This is a great etude to showcase clarity and playfulness using single and/or double tongue. Please pay close attention to the dynamics that start out with creascendos & decreascendos to and from extreme dynamics and switch to “subito” pp at mm 22 on count 2. During this lyrical section, allow the accents to be a bit of a surprise to the listener. Throughout the etude, give the accented 1/8th notes a little more length to add a bit of variety. It’s best to avoid trying to play the stacatto 1/16th notes short. Clean starts will suffice.

Beginning your practice at slow tempos and using a metronome is crucial to being successful when performing this etude. Please include etudes and excercises from other books like Arban, Clarke and Kopprasch to aid you in your preparation. Also, it’s a good idea to practice these extensive articulated sections slurred as well. This will help you find finger inadequacies and encourage you to use more air in your performances.


Euphonium Selection 2

Etude Title: Bb Major - Adagio Cantabile
Page(s): 2
Tempo: Quarter note 64–76

Play from beginning to end (no repeats).

Errata:
M. 26 & 28 ignore the staccato markings (revised 8/27/21)
M.47 add a decrescendo to "mp" count 1 of measure 48(revised 8/27/21)
M.55 add smorz beginning on the 8th note Concert D(revised 8/27/21)

Performance Guide:
This etude gives the performer a wonderful platform on which to improve and perfect the application of vibrato. Some people call it “jaw” or “lip” or “breath”. It is very personal and should add to the beauty of the selection for the listener. It is wise to practice with an even triplet and quadruple subdivision to learn control and consistency. Also, work to continue the vibrato all the way to the note change. This will add beauty and direction. The real application should be “even” but “a-rhythmic”. Listen to several euphonium soloists and also include singers in the “jazz” genre. Most notes will begin with a straight tone, in this etude, and then bring the vibrato in. Enough about vibrato.

Take a look at the suggested performance rhythm of the turns. To make it more musical, start a bit before the upbeat and move through and out of the turn. They are pick-ups to the following note. The 1/16 note runs should be treated as pick-ups, also. Please avoid the trap of breathing at the end of every slurs. These are 4 bar phrases for the most part. Please notice the number of times that the phrases end on count 2, as in measure 19. This musical “sigh” is prevalent through the rest of the etude. Count 1 should be strong with a “release” to count 2. Avoid the temptation to keep the last note even with the preceding or even stronger than count 1.


Euphonium Selection 3

Etude Title: Eb Minor - Allegro mosso
Page(s): 33 (Bass Clef); 35 (Treble Clef)
Tempo: Dotted Quarter Note = 80–96

Play from beginning to end.

Errata:
M. 11 add a decrescendo (revised 8/27/21)

Performance Guide:
Please make sure that “melodic” content of this etude is not ignored. Don’t laugh! Try playing the first 3 notes of the big beats without the following 1/16s. Those have to be heard to make a performance of this etude successful. Single and or double tongue should be used. The 6/8 time signature precludes the use of triple tongue. When practicing the hemiola measures, try leaving out the single articulated note to avoid “tying up”. Always simplify sections or measures to allow you to keep relaxed while working up tempos.

This etude has large dynamic changes to bring out. As always, begin practice with slow tempos using a metronome. It is a good idea to work on simple scale passages at faster tempos, so the performance tempos won’t sneak up on you! The last few lines are almost impossible to play as written. Try leaving out the last note of a phrase or two to help you make it to the end without tempo breaks.


Tuba

Book Title: 70 Studies, Vol. I
Editor: Blazhevich
Publisher: Robert King Music
Edition: No. 273 AL 28 596
Etude Selector Video Performance Guide


Tuba Selection 1

Etude Title: No. 8
Page(s): 7
Tempo: Eighth Note = 120–180

Play from beginning to end .

Errata:
None at this time.

Performance Guide:
This etude is marked ‘veloce’ and while a final tempo near the top of the indicated tempo range might be ideal, slow and steady will win the race. In the end, tone and musicality are much more important than speed. As you prepare this etude, be sure to focus on clarity and accuracy at a slow tempo and then gradually work it up to your desired speed. Be sure to practice Bb, F, and C major scales and arpeggios in preparation for this etude. Subdividing the dotted rhythms and long, tied notes is crucial for accurate rhythm. Use a metronome on the 8th note and 16th note to aid in your subdivision practice. Breathing can be an issue on the long technical run in the second half, so be sure to plan multiple breaths ahead of time so that you stand the best chance of making it through the full run.

On this etude, style should not be staccato. Be sure to play with a full and resonant tone on every note, no matter how quick it might go by. Notice the total lack of dynamics marked in this etude, I do not recommend performing it that way. Begin developing your dynamic plan by following the contour of the musical line and then adding contrast where it sounds appropriate. Be sure to write in your dynamic plan so you follow through in performance. I would suggest adding a rallentando at mm. 47 and 90.


Tuba Selection 2

Etude Title: No. 38
Page(s): 44-45
Tempo: Quarter Note = 78–92

Play from mm. 28 to End.

Errata:
M. 28- The Aflat should be slurred into the Eflat, just like in measure 1.(revised 7/17/2021)

Performance Guide:
This beautiful etude has some significant rhythmic challenges. Make sure to subdivide dotted rhythms, and to practice duple to triple subdivisions - 8ths to 8th note triplets like the ones at the end of measure 34. The second significant rhythmic challenge is the syncopation in measures 36 and 38. As Dr. Bowman always recommends, separate and accent! In this case, give the illusion of both in this lyrical etude by emphasizing the altered pitch on beat 3 in measures 36 and 38, and adding a slight lift on the syncopated quarter note at the end of the same measures.

In this etude, no dynamic contrast is marked. Make sure to add dynamics that are expressive by following the contour of the melodic lines and creating contrast where appropriate. Do not play the whole etude soft!!! In order to give a more expressive performance, shape your breathing, dynamics, and phrasing around the leading tones. There are many altered pitches (marked by natural and sharp signs), those are often leading tones and should be brought out. Try to avoid breathing between a leading tone and the resolution of that leading tone. A final musical tool that you might experiment with is rubato, I would suggest using a slight accelerando and then rallentando on the last three measures of the etude.


Tuba Selection 3

Etude Title: No. 27
Page(s): 26
Tempo: Eighth Note = 150–200

Play from beginning to end.

Errata:
M. 32-change the second note from an E-natural to a D-natural (revised 7/30/2021)
M. 32-change the fourth note from D-natural to a C#.(revised 7/30/2021)

Performance Guide:
This etude has a consistent 3+2 rhythm grouping and while the indicated tempo is for the 8th note, the performance should be felt in 2, not in 5. While preparing this etude, slow work with the metronome on the 8th note is key to success. Avoid lengthening the second half of each measure to make it feel more even (as if it were in 6/8). Make sure the 8ths and dotted 8ths are played exactly the length that they are written. Notice and mark the unusual accidentals like the E-sharp in measure 21, and give yourself a reminder accidental when necessary (last note of measure 22).

Provide dynamic contrast on a large scale (first half vs. second half), and within smaller sections and phrases. Emphasize the 3+2 note grouping so that the etude feels like an uneven dance. The style should be light and bouncy, but not staccato. Playing this etude with a dance style and good clarity is far more important than speed.


Percussion - Snare

Book Title: The Solo Snare Drummer
Editor: Firth
Publisher: Carl Fischer
Edition: O4749 0-8258-0913-4
Etude Selector Video Performance Guide


Percussion - Snare Selection 1

Etude Title: No. 14
Page(s): 17
Tempo: Quarter Note = 140–150

Play from beginning to end.

Errata:
In addition to the written dynamic markings please add the following: (see a pdf attached)
ms. 9 - 12 - piano
ms. 13-16 - mezzo-forte as marked
m. 17 – diminuendo to piano and
m. 18 – crescendo to forte
ms. 19-25 - forte
m. 26 – subito piano until
m. 33 – crescendo for 2 bars to
m. 35 – mezzo forte until
m. 39 – subito piano on the roll and crescendo to fortissimo to finish the etude!

Performance Guide:
This quick tempo etude is challenging but fun to play. The rolls are short and mostly connected/tied except for m. 22. In m. 22 each roll should be performed with a slight separation and no articulation at the end. Pay attention to patterns where there are triplets and 3 eighth notes that are not triplets such as mm. 9 and 10. Use your metronome to be precise! Carefully check the ties marked in m. 18.


Percussion - Keyboard (2 Mallet)

Book Title: Modern School
Editor: M. Goldenberg
Publisher: Chappell
Edition: 0505B 5497905115
Etude Selector Video Performance Guide


Percussion - Keyboard (2 Mallet) Selection 1

Etude Title: XXV
Page(s): 83
Tempo: Dotted Quarter Note = 56–64

Play from beginning to end.

Errata:
None at this time.

Performance Guide:
This etude should be felt in one (dotted quarter note). When you are first learning it however, set your metronome to a slower eighth note tempo. Stickings throughout should mostly be alternated but be sure to work through them thoroughly. Write them in if necessary. Most of the stickings provided work well.
None of the rolls are tied but be sure to give them full value. Lift off to play the next measure in time. Do not roll unless indicated. For example, mm. 21-23, 32, 33, and 35 have ties but no rolls.
The etude is in f minor but be aware of the many accidentals though-out.
I recommend using medium to medium-hard yarn marimba mallets for this etude.


Percussion - Keyboard (4 Mallet)

Book Title: Fundamental Solos for Mallets
Editor: M. Peters
Publisher: Alfred
Edition: 17321 0-7390-0621-5
Etude Selector Video Performance Guide


Percussion - Keyboard (4 Mallet) Selection 1

Etude Title: Sojourn
Page(s): 18-19
Tempo: Dotted Half Note = 48–54

Play from beginning to end.

Errata:
None at this time.

Performance Guide:
There are double lateral and vertical strokes throughout this piece. Be sure to lift off the bars always, but especially for the double verticals so that you produce a full sound. Choose some warm-up exercises that focus on these strokes . The right-hand double laterals are tricky from mm. 41 – 48 because of the interval changes and hand positioning. Work through these measures slowly and make sure you are striking in an appropriate beating spot. (for example, do not strike over the nodes/rope) Balance your hands so that the melody is always present. Except for a few measures it is in the right hand. Mm. 66 – 69 use double lateral strokes in both hands with a tricky pattern. Practice these measures thoroughly and remember the melody is still in the right hand.
The stickings provided work well. Suggested sticking for mm. 51 – 54 is either:
m. 51 - 1,2,3,2,3 etc. or m. 51 – 1,3,2,3,2 etc. (mallets left to right are 1,2,3,4)
Whichever sticking you choose it is important that you are comfortable landing on m. 55 to smoothly transition to the return of the A (beginning) section.
Check out the key changes and dynamic markings throughout. Play the rolls in mm. 70 and 71 full value but notice they are not tied together.
Have fun with this piece. Make it dance and feel like a waltz!


Percussion - Timpani

Book Title: Musical Etudes for the Advanced Timpanist
Editor: Fink
Publisher: Studio 4 Music (Marimba Productions)
Edition: 03-5042 8265400270
Etude Selector Video Performance Guide


Percussion - Timpani Selection 1

Etude Title: Four Drum Etude #1
Page(s): 27-28
Tempo: at m. 19 - dotted Half Note = 68–70; Tempo at m. 44 - dotted quarter note = 104 - 110

Play from m. 19 to end.

Errata:
m. 42 - fermata at least 2 measures long but no longer than 3 measures long;
G.P. (grand pause) is to be 6 measures long.

Performance Guide:
A standard set of 4 timpani should be used for this etude. (for example, 32”, 29”, 26”, 23”)
I highly recommend that you sit on a timpani stool or something similar, while performing this etude.
Beginning tunings at m. 19 from low to high are E, G, C, and E. Only roll where marked and dampen where it musically makes sense for example, m. 58 during the rests/tuning.
Play the fermata at m. 51 at least 2 measures long, but no more than 3. The G.P. (grand pause) should last 6 measures long to allow for tuning. I suggest placing either your left or right foot (just one please!) on a pedal way before m. 42 in order to be ready for the quick tuning changes.
Note the completely new tempo and time signature at m. 44. Again, have your foot on the 29” drum ready to tune prior to m. 58 and the same on the 26” drum before m. 67. Practice hearing all of the pitches and changes at a keyboard so you can sing through them. Always approach the timpani as a melodic instrument.
The time signature changes at m. 71 but the big beat stays the same. The dotted quarter note equals the quarter note. Do not push this tempo! This next section is technically difficult.
Stickings throughout this etude require some thought. I do not recommend any cross-sticking in this piece. However, there is a lot of double sticking needed. When moving between drums I prefer a double stroke that is moving inward, rather than out. For example, in measures 80 – 83 the sticking I recommend is right, right, left, left. In measures 93 and 94 it okay to use left, right, right, left, left, right, right as your sticking pattern. Strive to consistently strike in the same good beating spot. No matter what sticking or grip you are using, please lift off the drum. The sound you produce matters!
Mm.84 – 92 the dynamic marking is only mezzo-forte. Do not overplay the accent patterns.
I recommend a semi-articulate pair of mallets for this etude.